Reformed Churchmen

We are Confessional Calvinists and a Prayer Book Church-people. In 2012, we remembered the 350th anniversary of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer; also, we remembered the 450th anniversary of John Jewel's sober, scholarly, and Reformed "An Apology of the Church of England." In 2013, we remembered the publication of the "Heidelberg Catechism" and the influence of Reformed theologians in England, including Heinrich Bullinger's Decades. For 2014: Tyndale's NT translation. For 2015, John Roger, Rowland Taylor and Bishop John Hooper's martyrdom, burned at the stakes. Books of the month. December 2014: Alan Jacob's "Book of Common Prayer" at: January 2015: A.F. Pollard's "Thomas Cranmer and the English Reformation: 1489-1556" at: February 2015: Jaspar Ridley's "Thomas Cranmer" at:

Tuesday, November 30, 2010

Remembrance Day Soldier Cries (Soldier_Song)

We close out November 2010, in remembrance of American, Canadian and British forces facing off against forces of fascism. From a U.S. Marine, a salute to those of the past, present and future. "Freedom is not free." For the living, Men and Sons, we "paid the price." Our salute to those ashore, submerged, aloft, and at sea--this night. Let us never forget those who fell beside us, EVER.

Advent 2010: Händel Messiah - Hallelujah Chorus

Fellow Anglicans and 1662 Prayer Book Churchmen, we are called to a study of Isaiah throughout Advent. Marvellous readings in Is 19-21 this day, Tuesday for the First Sunday in Advent. The "liberals" get no quarter from Isaiah. Away with them!

Fuller Theological Seminary alums: Richard Foster « Churchmouse Campanologist

More light in the darkness from CC re: Fuller alums. No surprises here.

Fuller Theological Seminary alums: Richard Foster « Churchmouse Campanologist

Letter to Her Majesty, Queen of England

After the Second Sunday in Advent, we will post a letter to Her Majesty, the Queen of England. We trust she is in your prayers? E.g. The 1662 BCP, by day and night?

Her Majesty spoke on 23 Nov 2010 to the GS of the C o E. Little will we hear from American, let alone British, Anglicans about the KJV and 1662 BCP. The Americans do the "100 yard" dash from it.

Thank God for the books, not the American Bishops, TEC or ACNA, the whole lot of them.

Wee Frees are singing: The Church of England Newspaper, Nov 29, 2010 p 6. « Conger

Wee Frees are singing: The Church of England Newspaper, Nov 29, 2010 p 6. « Conger

Wee Frees are singing: The Church of England Newspaper, Nov 29, 2010 p 6. November 30, 2010
Posted by geoconger in Church of England Newspaper, Hymnody/Liturgy, Presbyterian/Church of Scotland.
First published in The Church of England Newspaper.

The sound you may hear from a Wee Free chapel might just be singing. After 147 years, the Free Church of Scotland, the “Wee Frees” have relaxed their ban on musical instruments and hymn singing.

On Nov 19 following two days of what was described by the church as “harmonious” debate, a special synod of the Free Church of Scotland voted 98-84 to allow individual congregations to decide whether to permit the liberty of using music in worship services.

Formed in 1847 following the secession of evangelicals from the Church of Scotland over what they saw as the state’s encroachment on their spiritual independence, the majority of the Free Church returned to the Church of Scotland in the last century. However, a dissenting group based in the Highlands and the Western Isles remained outside and continues the name and polity of the Free Church.

The church’s canons had called for the “avoidance of uninspired materials of praise and musical instruments” in worship, leading the Wee Frees to focus their musical efforts on Psalm singing, as the Psalms, being part of the Scriptures, were inspired, while modern hymns were not.

In 2005 the moderator of the Free Church, the Rev. Donald Smith, opened debate over relaxing the ban, and a motion was brought to the 2010 synod by the church’s Board of Trustees to confirm its ban on music. However, the motion was opposed by moderates within the church led by the Rev. Alex Macdonald who urged adoption of a “local option” on hymn singing.

The General Assembly resolved that “purity of worship requires that every aspect of worship services, including sung praise, be consistent with the Word of God and with the whole doctrine of the Confession of Faith approved by previous Assemblies of this Church.”

Each Kirk Session was given the “freedom, either to restrict the sung praise to the Psalms, or to include paraphrases of Scripture, and hymns and spiritual songs consistent with the doctrine of the Confession of Faith; that each Kirk Session shall have freedom whether to permit musical accompaniment to the sung praise in worship, or not.”

However, hymn singing could not be imposed upon a congregation without the approval of its minister. While the majority concluded that music could be used in worship to glorify God, the General Assembly recognized the “divisive nature of the issue” and affirmed its “commitment to unity and urge[d] officebearers and members to find ways of continuing in unity after the Assembly.”

The debate over hymnody in the Free Church of Scotland has followed the same path as the Nineteenth century debate over music at worship in the Church of England. Modern hymnody was introduced by Evangelicals by the close of the Eighteenth century, who cited its utility. High churchmen opposed the innovation, saying a warrant for hymn singing could not be found in the Book of Common Prayer or Scripture.

In 1819 the rector of St. Paul’s Church in Sheffield, the Rev. Richard Cotterill, published “A Selection of Psalms and Hymns” adapted for use in the Church of England. The evangelical Mr. Cotterill was brought before the Archbishop of York’s Consistory Court upon charges of violating the rubrics of the Prayer Book for using hymns in worship. The chancellor found Mr. Cotterill guilty, ruling that hymn singing was irregular. However the court declined to impose costs and suspended the imposition of a sentence, citing the benefits of hymn singing.

The issue was resolved by Mr. Cotterill withdrawing his hymnal, and publishing a new less Evangelical edition that contained the imprimatur of the Archbishop of York. The court’s decision gave tacit permission for hymn singing, which was not formally approved for use in worship until 1872.

Any Text Without A Context is Pretext for a Prooftext (Updated) « Heidelblog

"So said my homiletics (preaching) prof, Derke Bergsma. I don’t know if that aphorism was original to Derke (he often quoted R. B. Kuiper to us in class, e.g., “Men, there are three points to every sermon, the text, the text, the text” and “preach the text, the whole text, and nothing but the text, so help you God.”) but it stuck with me. One way to be sure to handle the text of Scripture well and accurately is to place it in its original context. Failure to read Scripture against its original background will have unhappy consequences.

For the full article, a good article, see:
Any Text Without A Context is Pretext for a Prooftext (Updated) « Heidelblog

The Queen's General Synod speech

Advent 2010: Effectual Calling in Jn.1.43-46

John 1.43-46

43. The next day Jesus wished to go into Galilee, and found Philip, and said to him, Follow me. 44. Now Philip was of Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter. 45. Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith to him, We have found Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph, of whom Moses in the Law, and the Prophets write. 46. Nathanael said to him, Can any good thing come out of Nazareth? Philip said to him, Come and see.

Calvin says of effectual calling:

43. Follow me. When Philip was inflamed by this single word to follow Christ, we infer from it how great is the efficacy of the word of God; but it does not appear indiscriminately in all, for God addresses many without any advantage, just as if he struck their ears with a sound which vanished into air. So then the external preaching of the word is in itself unfruitful, except that it inflicts a deadly wound on the reprobate, so as to render them inexcusable before God. But when the secret grace of God quickens it, all the senses must be affected in such a manner that men will be prepared to follow wherever God calls them. We ought, therefore, to pray to Christ that he may display in us the same power of the Gospel. In the case of Philip, there was no doubt a peculiarity about his following Christ; for he is commanded to follow, not like one of us, but as a domestic, and as a familiar companion. But still the calling of all of us is illustrated by this calling of Philip [emphasis added]

Monday, November 29, 2010

Anglicans Ablaze: Great Anglican Divines: John Jewel (1522-1572)

Anglicans Ablaze: Great Anglican Divines: John Jewel (1522-1572)

Anglicans Ablaze: Sorry Prof. Hunter, but Anglicanism is not dying

Anglicans Ablaze: Sorry Prof. Hunter, but Anglicanism is not dying

Fuller Theological Seminary alums: John Ortberg « Churchmouse Campanologist

Fuller Theological Seminary alums: John Ortberg « Churchmouse Campanologist

Distressing developments put Church of England at risk | Holy Post | National Post

Distressing developments put Church of England at risk
By Ian Hunter

"This week, British bookies quoted odds on where the royal marriage between Prince William and Kate Middleton would be celebrated. St. Paul’s Cathedral was leading Westminster Abbey by a nose — but it turned out the latter won. Of course, there was never any doubt that the wedding would be in the Church of England; the English Monarch is the titular head of the Church and it is, after all, a Church by law established.

The more interesting question that English bookies might ponder is whether there will be anything left of the Church of England when the putative King finishes his reign? Judging by recent events, I should say: Not very likely.

Already more people worship weekly in England’s mosques than in the Church of England. And just a few days ago, five Church of England bishops — bishops, mind you, not priests — publicly announced their resignation and explained why they are heading to Rome.
The bishops’ joint statement (from Andrew Burnham, Keith Newton, John Broadhurst, Edwin Barnes and David Silk) said that they were “distressed by developments in faith and order in Anglicanism which we believe to be incompatible with the historic vocation of Anglicanism and the tradition of the Church for 2,000 years.”

You can say that again. Whether one examines liturgy, doctrine, or the trendy issues like women bishops and homosexual marriages, the reality is that the contemporary Anglican Church bears hardly any resemblance to the spirit of the 39 Articles of Religion that once defined this historic institution.".

Read more:

For the full article, see:
Distressing developments put Church of England at risk Holy Post National Post

Advent 2010: O Come O Come Emmanuel



1. In 1566, Archbishop Parker wrote Bullinger noting that "we all here" agree with the Second Helvetic Confession.

2. We cite relevant sections below from Chapter Five.

3. This section ably represents--also--Heritage or Reformation Anglicanism vis a vis the Thirty-nine Articles.

4. Anglo-Catholics, Jack Iker, and others invoke saints. The REC permits it. They are unfaithful parasites on Heritage Anglicans.

5. Virtue has a media-blackout as a PR-centre for the ACNA.

6. Invoking saints is unbiblical and suspends the glory, finality, and efficaceousness of the Sole, Sovereign and Exclusion mediation of our only High Priest, the LORD Jesus Christ.


1. Call upon these men to leave Heritage Anglicanism and join any one of the many AC-groups afoot. In short, be men of honour and integrity.


GOD ALONE IS TO BE INVOKED THROUGH THE MEDIATION OF CHRIST ALONE. In all crises and trials of our life we call upon him alone, and that by the mediation of our only mediator and intercessor, Jesus Christ. For we have been explicitly commanded: "Call upon me in the day of trouble; I will deliver you, and you shall glorify me" (Ps. 1:15). Moreover, we have a most generous promise from the Lord Who said: "If you ask anything of the Father, he will give it to you" (John 16:23), and: "Come to me, all who labor and are heavy laden and I will give you rest: (Matt 11:28). And since it is written: "How are men to call upon him in whom they have not believed?" (Rom. 10:14), and since we do believe in God alone, we assuredly call upon him alone, and we do so through Christ. For as the apostle says, "There is one God and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus? (I Tim. 2:5), and, "If any one does sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous," etc. (I John 2:1).

THE SAINTS ARE NOT TO BE ADORED, WORSHIPPED OR INVOKED. For this reason we do not adore, worship, or pray to the saints in heaven, or to other gods, and we do not acknowledge them as our intercessors or mediators before the Father in heaven. For God and Christ the Mediator are sufficient for us; neither do we give to others the honor that is due to God alone and to his Son, because he has expressly said: "My glory I give to no other: (Isa. 42:8), and because Peter has said: "There is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved," except the name of Christ (Acts 4:12). In him, those who give their assent by faith do not seek anything outside Christ.

THE DUE HONOR TO BE RENDERED TO THE SAINTS. At the same time we do not despise the saints or think basely of them. For we acknowledge them to be living members of Christ and friends of God who have gloriously overcome the flesh and the world. Hence we love them as brothers, and also honor them; yet not with any kind of worship but by an honorable opinion of them and just praises of them. We also imitate them. For with ardent longings and supplications we earnestly desire to be imitators of their faith and virtues, to share eternal salvation with them, to dwell eternally with them in the presence of God, and to rejoice with them in Christ. And in this respect we approve of the opinion of St. Augustine in De Vera Religione: "Let not our religion be the cult of men who have died. For if they have lived holy lives, they are not to be thought of as seeking such honors; on the contrary, they want us to worship him by whose illumination they rejoice that we are fellow-servants of his merits. They are therefore to be honored by the way of imitation, but not to be adored in a religious manner," etc.

Deceit in the REC: Declaration of Principles of the Reformed Episcopal Church - The Anglo-Reformed Movement

At hat-tip to Anglo-Reformed ( which, by a turn, prompted these thoughts--which Psalm 139 advises have been known before uttered (great Psalter-lections for Monday in the First Sunday in Advent, 2010). A few thoughts in day 2-watch. Psalm 140 raises the issue of serpentine behaviours. Is it an exaggeration to say that "double-speak," conscious, volitional, and intentional, rises to the level of "serpentine" acts? There are such things as "mistakes." But what we raise is a matter of stated and historic principles--long published--and then dismissed by REC leaders.

1. Deceit in the REC as per the below "Declaration of Principles." Psalm 140 speaks of serpentine tongues, hence our photo to the left.

2. Complicity with Virtue, As to the latter, this is the second day of conflict with Virtue, having begun on the First Sunday in Advent, 2010.

3. Psalm 139--His Majesty's omnipotence, omniscience, and providence knows the words, thoughts, goings and comings of ALL PLAYERS ON THIS ANGLICAN STAGE of doings.

4. Relatedly, Jack Iker goes to GAFCON where the 1662 BCP and Articles are affirmed. Jack walks out and says, "We read the articles like John Newman" (meaning, we reject the Protestant articles). ACNA double-speak. Would it be better for Mr. Iker to simply leave GAFCON? Join any one of the various alphabet Anglo-Catholic groups?

5. Total silence over this double-speak in the media. Akin to Mr. Leo Riches double-speak in the REC.

6. This is day two on the "Virtue-Watch." Below are the "Principles" tossed by Mr. Leo Riches, his own son, and other leaders in more double-speak. Who can abide dishonesty? Should Mr. Riches simply have left the REC--himself--and joined the TEC? Would that not have been the course of honour and respect? Would that still be the better course for him?

Declaration of Principles of the Reformed Episcopal Church - The Anglo-Reformed Movement

Adopted, December 2d, 1873

1.The Reformed Episcopal Church, holding "the faith once delivered unto the saints," declares its belief in the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as the Word of God, and the sole Rule of Faith and Practice; in the Creed "commonly called the Apostles' Creed;" in the Divine institution of the Sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper; and in the doctrines of grace substantially as they are set forth in the Thirty–nine Articles of Religion.

2.This Church recognizes and adheres to Episcopacy, not as of Divine right, but as a very ancient and desirable form of Church polity.

3.This Church, retaining a Liturgy which shall not be imperative or repressive of freedom in prayer, accepts The Book of Common Prayer, as it was revised, proposed, and recommended for use by the General Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church, A. D. 1785, reserving full liberty to alter, abridge, enlarge, and amend the same, as may seem most conductive to the edification of the people, "provided that the substance of the faith be kept entire."

4.This Church condemns and rejects the following erroneous and strange doctrines as contrary to God's Word;

•First, That the Church of Christ exists only in one order or form of ecclesiastical polity:

•Second, That Christian Ministers are "priests" in another sense than that in which all believers are "a royal priesthood:"

•Third, That the Lord's Table is an altar on which the oblation of the Body and Blood of Christ is offered anew to the Father:

•Fourth, That the Presence of Christ in the Lord's Supper is a presence in the elements of the Bread and Wine:

•Fifth, That Regeneration is inseparably connected with Baptism.

Saturday, November 27, 2010

Public Call: Virtue to Publish Protestant, Reformed, Calvinistic Works

Public Call: Virtue to Publish Protestant, Reformed, Calvinistic and Anglican Works. Virtue is a journalist at David has been widely published since the mid-1990's.

The date is 27 November 2010. Henceforth, weekly or more often, we shall call upon Mr. David Virtue to publish regularly and routinely Protestant, Reformed, Calvinistic and Anglican works.

Mr. Virtue could easily co-labour with the Church Society. Henceforth, we proceed.

David, what say you?
Belatedly, we post this:


David Virtue is old, tired, and "we all are" with tired, liberal, jaded, American Episcoplaianism.

David has waged a valiant war against the liberals. We applaud that effort. David has stood on the ramparts since the mid-90's. I was there with him. Many of you were too.

However, David has failed to adequately characterize authentic Anglicanism as Protestant, Reformed and Calvinistic. He calls himself the "Voice of Authentic Anglicanism," while tolerating Anglo-Catholc moderators. It is time to call him on this serious inadequacy and failure of reporting.

For this scribe, as an old Warrior, war has been declared. Just plain tired of historic obscurantism in North America. David, are we clear? I will post this daily, monthly and yearly until I die. I am 57 and have many months left. Are we clear? Week, month and year out.

I deeply love your labours in years past, David, but will not abide these tolerations.

I call upon all recipients:

Demand of David Virtue the weekly publication of articles from the "Church Society." www. Make it public. Send it far. Send it wide.

Donald Philip Veitch

Evensong in Advent 2010: Magnificat in C - Stanford

Throughout the year, every day, 24/7, all seasons, the "Magnificat" or Luke 1.46ff, is said or sung. It is Mary's exclamatory praises following the Annunciatory certainties made to her re: our Sovereign Redeemer, Final Prophet, High Priest, Savior and Lord. This has been burned into our minds by catechetical use through the days, months and years. This is Stanford's rendition in C-major. While many may not know this rendition, for many of us it is familiar. For those "saying" the Magnificat, rather than singing it, the Bible words are well known. Who says we are not Evangelical with words like these? Or, that we are not Catholic (= not Roman) when this has been said through centuries?

Enjoy Stanford, routinely sung in my home parish, Mariners Anglican, Detroit (1842-present).

Evening Prayer in Advent 2010: Westminster Abbey Choir - Psalm 67

Evening Prayer, Psalm 67, "God be merciful unto us..." Sung every evening throughout the year, 24/7, following the NT reading for the specific day in question, including Advent. For Prayer Book and Bible-loving Churchmen, here are the words of Psalm 67--engrained upon our memories by catechetical usage.

1God be merciful unto us, and bless us; and cause his face to shine upon us; Selah.

2That thy way may be known upon earth, thy saving health among all nations.

3Let the people praise thee, O God; let all the people praise thee.

4O let the nations be glad and sing for joy: for thou shalt judge the people righteously, and govern the nations upon earth. Selah.

5Let the people praise thee, O God; let all the people praise thee.

6Then shall the earth yield her increase; and God, even our own God, shall bless us.

7God shall bless us; and all the ends of the earth shall fear him.

Seminary curriculum: Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary (WELS) « Churchmouse Campanologist

Later than anticipated, Churchmouse Campanologist continues its review of seminaries to see if we can discern any connection between seminary curriculum and the decline in sound doctrine and preaching. Therefore, these posts look for weaknesses, e.g. postmodernism, moral relativism, church growth.

On August 27, 2010, we looked at Virginia Theological Seminary, an Episcopal institution. Today, it’s the turn of Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary in Mequon, Wisconsin, which is affiliated with the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, or WELS.

For more, see:
Seminary curriculum: Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary (WELS) « Churchmouse Campanologist

Fuller Theological Seminary alums: Tony Jones « Churchmouse Campanologist

CC gives us more on Fuller alums and....loons? A brief note from CC.

"Tony Jones not only earned his M. Div. from Fuller Theological Seminary but is now one of their adjunct professors at the Lowell W. Berry Center for Lifelong Learning.

Since 2008, he has been the ‘theologian-in-residence’ at emergent Doug Pagitt‘s church — rather, ‘holistic, missional, Christian community’ — Solomon’s Porch, in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Jones and Pagitt co-founded and co-own JoPa Productions. JoPa has organised emergent events and has since branched into multi- and social media consulting and training."

For more, see:

Fuller Theological Seminary alums: Tony Jones « Churchmouse Campanologist

Hill: Who Chose the Gospels? « Heidelblog

Although stuck in 16th-17th century readings, when Dr. Clark makes recommendations, we listen and we forward. Dr. Clark is one of the sanest voices in our times. He is Confessionally Reformed. So am I, but I refuse to give up my BCP. Otherwise, you can take Dr. Clark's comments and books to the bank--those checks don't bounce.

Hill: Who Chose the Gospels? « Heidelblog

Advent 2010: O Thou Who Camest From Above : Rochester Cathedral Choir

Advent 2010: Love Divine, All Loves Excelling : Wells Cathedral Choir

An hymn as a devout prayer, to wit, "Fix in us Thy humble dwelling..."

Love divine, all loves excelling,
joy of heaven, to earth come down,
fix in us thy humble dwelling,
all thy faithful mercies crown.

Jesus, thou art all compassion,
pure, unbounded love thou art;
visit us with thy salvation,
enter every trembling heart.

Come, almighty to deliver,
let us all thy life receive;
suddenly return, and never,
nevermore thy temples leave.

Thee we would be always blessing,
serve thee as thy hosts above,
pray, and praise thee without ceasing,
glory in thy perfect love.

Finish then thy new creation;
pure and spotless let us be;
let us see thy great salvation
perfectly restored in thee:

Changed from glory into glory,
till in heaven we take our place,
till we cast our crowns before thee,
lost in wonder, love, and praise.

Advent 2010: Once in Royal David's City

A memorable rendering from a 2004 BBC presentation. As Advent is before us--again, thankfully and with prayer and petition.

President George Washington: Thanksgiving Day

President George Washington, like eleven other Presidents, and 2/3's of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence, were Anglicans. George worshipped at Christ Church, Philadelphia, when in Philadelphia. He would have been familiar with the 1662 BCP. We quote below:

"Whereas it is the duty of all nations to acknowledge the providence of Almighty God, to obey His will, to be grateful for His benefits, and humbly to implore His protection and favor; and Whereas both Houses of Congress have, by their joint committee, requested me to “recommend to the people of the United States a day of public thanksgiving and prayer, to be observed by acknowledging with grateful hearts the many and signal favors of Almighty God, especially by affording them an opportunity peaceably to establish a form of government for their safety and happiness:”

Now, therefore, I do recommend and assign Thursday, the 26th day of November next, to be devoted by the people of these States to the service of that great and glorious Being who is the beneficent author of all the good that was, that is, or that will be; that we may then all unite in rendering unto Him our sincere and humble thanks for His kind care and protection of the people of this country previous to their becoming a nation; for the signal and manifold mercies and the favorable interpositions of His providence in the course and conclusion of the late war; for the great degree of tranquility, union, and plenty which we have since enjoyed; for the peaceable and rational manner in which we have been enable to establish constitutions of government for our safety and happiness, and particularly the national one now lately instituted for the civil and religious liberty with which we are blessed, and the means we have of acquiring and diffusing useful knowledge; and, in general, for all the great and various favors which He has been pleased to confer upon us.

And also that we may then unite in most humbly offering our prayers and supplications to the great Lord and Ruler of Nations and beseech Him to pardon our national and other transgressions; to enable us all, whether in public or private stations, to perform our several and relative duties properly and punctually; to render our National Government a blessing to all the people by constantly being a Government of wise, just, and constitutional laws, discreetly and faithfully executed and obeyed; to protect and guide all sovereigns and nations (especially such as have shown kindness to us), and to bless them with good governments, peace, and concord; to promote the knowledge and practice of true religion and virtue, and the increase of science among them and us; and, generally to grant unto all mankind such a degree of temporal prosperity as He alone knows to be best.

Given under my hand, at the city of New York, the 3d day of October, A.D. 1789, George Washington."


Cranmer's Curate lands some blows re: the Royal Wedding, 29 April 2011 (we believe that to be the date) at Westminster Abbey. Nothing like good, old fashioned books and architecture to bear witness. CC says:

"Even if William and Catherine have the Church of England’s Common Worship liturgy at their marriage service, counter-cultural (in the UK at any rate) Christian truth would get a much-needed public airing. But if they get the Book of Common Prayer, some serious punches for biblical Christianity could be landed.

Here is why the high priests of establishment political correctness could find themselves squirming in the Abbey:"

For more about Canterbury's impending and potential discomforts, read:

Archbishop Cranmer’s Immortal Bequest: The Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England

Archbishop Cranmer’s Immortal Bequest:
The Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England:
An Evangelistic Liturgy
Churchman 106/1 1992
Samuel Leuenberger

1. Introduction

Theological studies in England and the U.S.A. brought me into contact with the Anglican
Church and its liturgy, the Book of Common Prayer (1662).1 All important types of services2
like baptism, confirmation, holy matrimony, burial of the dead, holy communion and the
services of making, ordaining and consecrating bishops, priests and deacons3 are contained

The liturgies in this prayer book had a special attraction for me because of a certain
discovery: I noticed that legitimate elements from the Early Church have been integrated with
their aesthetic qualities intact without neglecting the most important factor: the liturgies,
particularly Morning Prayer, Evening Prayer, and Holy Communion (the chief services)4 are
permeated through and through with a genuine reformed theology having revivalistic
elements. It was because I came to a living faith through the witness of evangelical circles in
the Anglo-Saxon world, that the importance of a revivalistically-oriented liturgy was so
relevant to me. It is often the case that liturgy and ceremony are rejected by evangelicallyminded churches. This fact became for me a challenge to show through the Book of Common Prayer that liturgy and revivalistic theology can go along together without contradicting one another. It became a concern to me to present the Book of Common Prayer authorized in 1662 as one of the most precious gems among Christian liturgies.

For more, see the Church Soc article at:

First Sunday in Advent: Let all mortal flesh keep silence - Bairstow

Handel's Messiah - 'He Shall Feed His Flock Like a Shepherd'

First Sunday in Advent

First Sunday in Advent: Lo He Comes With Clouds Descending : Lichfield Cathedral Choir

Lo! he comes, with clouds descending,
once for our salvation slain;
thousand thousand saints attending
swell the triumph of his train:
Alleluia! alleluia! alleluia!
Christ the Lord returns to reign.

Every eye shall now behold him,
robed in dreadful majesty;
those who set at nought and sold him,
pierced, and nailed him to the tree,
deeply wailing, deeply wailing, deeply wailing,
shall the true Messiah see.

Those dear tokens of his passion
still his dazzling body bears,
cause of endless exultation
to his ransomed worshipers;
with what rapture, with what rapture, with what rapture
gaze we on those glorious scars!

Now redemption, long expected,
see in solemn pomp appear;
all his saints, by man rejected,
now shall meet him in the air:
Alleluia! alleluia! alleluia!
See the day of God appear!

Yea, amen! let all adore thee,
high on thine eternal throne;
Savior, take the power and glory;
claim the kingdom for thine own:
Alleluia! alleluia! alleluia!
Thou shalt reign, and thou alone.

Words: John Cennick (1718-1755), 1752;
as altered by Charles Wesley (1707-1788), 1758;
and then altered by Martin Madan (1726-1790), 1760

Berkhof in Russian! « Heidelblog

Dr. Clark reports the good news at HB:

"Congratulations to Evangelical Press for getting Louis Berkhof translated into Russian. We, in the English-speaking world have an embarrassment of riches of Reformed resources. Berkhof’s Reformed Dogmatics first appeared in 1932. It was later re-titled Systematic Theology. That our Russian-speaking brothers and sisters are just now getting such a basic text illustrates the challenge pastors face in establishing Reformed teaching and practice there.

Pray that it bears much fruit."

Berkhof in Russian! « Heidelblog

VirtueOnline - IRD President Answers His Episcopal Critics. Reflects on Mainline Decline

"Mark Tooley is the president of the Washington DC based Institute on Religion and Democracy (IRD). IRD describes its mission as Christians working to reaffirm the church's biblical and historical teachings, strengthen and reform its role in public life, protect religious freedom, and renew democracy at home and abroad and to lead the fight rallying Christians to champion biblical, historic Christianity and its role in democratic society, and to defeat revisionist challenges.

His primary area of concern is to direct the United Methodist committee (UMAction) ministry for traditional United Methodists working to reclaim America's third largest religious body for historic Christian beliefs. Mark is the editor of UMAction Briefing and the author of "Taking Back The United Methodist Church." His articles about the political witness of America's churches have appeared in "The Wall Street Journal", "The American Spectator", "The Weekly Standard", "Human Events", "The Washington Times", "Touchstone", "The Chicago Tribune", "The New York Post", and elsewhere. He is also a frequent commentator on radio and television. He currently attends Washington Street United Methodist Church in Alexandria, Virginia."

For more, see:
VirtueOnline - News - Exclusives - IRD President Answers His Episcopal Critics. Reflects on Mainline Decline

The Wittenberg Door: Catechisms and Catechizing in England from 1530 to 1740

"Catechisms and Catechizing in England from 1530 to 1740

The following is an excerpt from the chapter Catechizing in Church in Ian Green’s The Christian’s ABC: Catechisms and Catechizing in England (1530 – 1740). It provides a fascinating look into how the English churches of that time catechized."

For more, see:
The Wittenberg Door: Catechisms and Catechizing in England from 1530 to 1740

Anonymous Posters

I've had several reasonable and thoughtful posts by anonymous posters lately. Had there been some form of identification, including even church affiliations and names, I would have posted them. Regrettably, I must continue the stated policy of not posting anonymous posters.

Thursday, November 25, 2010

Haydn: Te Deum

Appropriate to Thanksgiving Day, 2010.

Te Deum - Handel

Appropriate to Thanksgiving Day.

Westminster Abbey Choir - Te Deum

For Thanksgiving Day, the Te Deum is appropriate.

Vaughan Williams - Te Deum

Vaughan Williams - Te Deum

Appropriate to Thanksgiving Day.

Sinclair Ferguson on the Apostle Paul, Patrick Hamilton and the Voice of the Gospel - Feeding on Christ

The Great Scottish Lutheran, Patrick Hamilton, the reformer.

Sinclair Ferguson on the Apostle Paul, Patrick Hamilton and the Voice of the Gospel - Feeding on Christ

U.S. NAVY - War on Terror - MUST SEE

US Navy and US Marine Corps Tribute

Navy Hymn Tribute

A salute to Sailors, past, present and future.

Justified by Faith Alone | Lutheranism 101

Thank God for these Confessional Lutherans who do not equivocate about JBFA, unlike Western Anglicans, despite their Confessional patrimony and literature. Here we get an hint:

"Justification is essentially Jesus answering for God’s wrath over all our sins. Then, with His Spirit, He continues to deliver the forgiveness of sins through Baptism, Absolution, and the Lord’s Supper.

Justification is forgiveness of sins. According to our Lord, forgiveness is our deepest need. If we are not sinners, justification is irrelevant!"

For more, see:
Justified by Faith Alone | Lutheranism 101

Church Times - Empty seats in Dublin as Primates opt out

AT LEAST ten Primates from the Global South are now expected to boycott the
From the Church Times, UK, we read the news that must dispirit Western Anglicans and Rowan Williams of Canterbury. It's rather seismic for Rowan. We read:

"Primates’ Meeting in Dublin in January.

In a statement released on Wednesday, five African Primates, members of the GAFCON Primates’ Council, confirmed that they would not attend the two-yearly meeting. In addition, it is understood that the Primate of South-East Asia, Dr John Chew; the Primate in Jerusalem & the Middle East, Dr Mouneer Anis; and the Primate of the Indian Ocean, the Most Revd Ian Ernest, will not go to Dublin.

Furthermore it is expected that two new Primates, Presiding Bishop Tito Zavala, Primate of the Southern Cone, and the Most Revd Onesphore Rwage, Primate of Rwanda, will also boycott the meeting.

In the statement, which came out of a meeting of the GAFCON Primates’ Council in Oxford in October, but was released only on Wednesday, five Primates — Dr Justice Akrofi of West Africa, Dr Valentino Mokiwa of Tanzania, the Most Revd Nicholas Okoh of Nigeria, the Most Revd Henry Orombi of Uganda, and Dr Eliud Wabukala of Kenya — say they “join with other Primates from the Global South in declaring that we will not be present”.

They acknowledge the Anglican Covenant is “well-intentioned” but say they “have come to the conclusion the current text is fatally flawed”.

In response, Canon Kenneth Kearon, sec­retary general of the Anglican Communion, said: “The decision whether to come remains a matter for the Primates.”

The Oxford statement also reveals that GAFCON plans to build partnerships with other denom­inations that “share their con­victions”.

Church Times - Empty seats in Dublin as Primates opt out

Thanksgiving Day Collect

1928 BCP.

For Our Country

ALMIGHTY God, who hast given us this good land for our heritage; We humbly beseech thee that we may always prove ourselves a people mindful of thy favour and glad to do thy will. Bless our land with honourable industry, sound learning, and pure manners. Save us from violence, discord, and confusion; from pride and arrogancy, and from every evil way. Defend our liberties, and fashion into one united people the multitudes brought hither out of many kindreds and tongues. Endue with the spirit of wisdom those to whom in thy Name we entrust the authority of government, that there may be justice and peace at home, and that, through obedience to thy law, we may show forth thy praise among the nations of the earth. In the time of prosperity, fill our hearts with thankfulness, and in the day of trouble, suffer not our trust in thee to fail; all which we ask through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

VirtueOnline - Anglican church faces 'piece by piece dissolution', warns archbishop

VOL reports the following.

"Rowan Williams speaking at the General Synod. Rowan Williams speaking at the General Synod.

Dr Rowan Williams, the archbishop of Canterbury, warned of the risk of "piece-by-piece dissolution" of worldwide Anglicanism in a heartfelt personal plea today to warring factions in the Church of England.

At the opening of the church's general synod in London, he called for all parties to put aside their disputes and agree on a fresh framework for settling differences across the 70 million-strong international communion."

For more, see:
VirtueOnline - News - News - Anglican church faces 'piece by piece dissolution', warns archbishop

Wednesday, November 24, 2010

VirtueOnline - News - News - Oxford Statement of the Primates' Council

VirtueOnline - News - News - Oxford Statement of the Primates' Council

Oxford Statement of the Primates' Council

November 24, 2010 AD


The leaders of the GAFCON movement are keenly aware of the crises of conscience that are pressing some people to shift their membership and ministry from the Anglican Church.

While we are greatly sympathetic that there are many areas of crisis that assault conscience, once again, we would offer that the theological clarity of the Jerusalem Declaration offers a solid foundation on which to engage with other Anglicans in the pursuit of Gospel mission.

Being able to link with those who not only form the majority of Anglicans in the world, but also those who affirm Biblical theological foundations of what Anglicans have always believed and practiced can provide concrete relationships and meaningful partnerships that are of more substance than the structures that have shown themselves to be flawed or compromised.

GAFCON provides a way to share Biblical Anglicanism that is in concert with what Anglicans have always believed, taught, and practiced.

We believe that Anglicanism has a great deal to offer in the pursuit of reaching the world for Christ. While we wish those who are departing the Anglican Church well, we do not believe that it is necessary to depart from what Anglicans have always believed to remain faithful. At the same time, we understand that some structures have become so compromised that some have been pressed by conscience to separate from their national structures - such as in North America.

We are glad that GAFCON exists and provides links to remain Anglican when people have been unable, for conscience, to remain in their Province.

In England (as well as other areas), we invite people to re-affirm what we have always believed in Anglicanism by adopting the Jerusalem Declaration as a statement of their own faith and join with us in partnership in working to win the world to Christ. It is with that perspective that the leaders of GAFCON met recently in Oxford and they share their thoughts from that gathering in the attached document.

The Most Rev. Gregory J. Venables,

The Statement

1. The GAFCON/FCA Primates' Council met in Oxford from October 4th through October 7th, 2010. We gathered as Bishops in Council and as the elected leaders of provinces and national churches of the Anglican Communion representing more than forty million Anglicans. We know that many of our people confront a fallen world where sin abounds; the economy is troubled and resources are scarce; disasters loom and governments often seem impotent and helpless and yet even in the midst of all these things "our hope is in the Name of the Lord" and we are filled with hope and vision.

2. We are thankful for God's hand in establishing GAFCON and the Fellowship of Confessing Anglicans. We rejoice in God's guidance from the Scriptures, the gift of the Holy Spirit to strengthen us, and the provision of a godly fellowship to sustain us. In this context we have met in Oxford, a city that has seen many critical events in Anglican history, and are grateful for the men and women who have given their lives to protect the faith that has given us eternal life.

3. We believe that we are now entering a new era for the Anglican Communion. New ways of living out our common life are emerging as old structures are proven to be ineffective in confronting the challenges of living in a pluralistic global community. We rejoice in the call of the Jerusalem Declaration for a renewed commitment to the authority of scripture and the centrality of the gospel of Jesus Christ. Sadly the rejection of these historic anchors to our faith has brought us to a crisis in the life of the Communion.

4. As we have made clear in numerous communiqués and meetings those who have abandoned the historic teaching of the Church have torn the fabric of our life together at its deepest level. We have made repeated attempts to bring repentance and restoration and yet these efforts have been rejected. We grieve for those who have walked apart and earnestly pray for them and the people under their care.

5. For the sake of Christ and of His Gospel we can no longer maintain the illusion of normalcy and so we join with other Primates from the Global South in declaring that we will not be present at the next Primates' meeting to be held in Ireland. And while we acknowledge that the efforts to heal our brokenness through the introduction of an Anglican Covenant were well intentioned we have come to the conclusion the current text is fatally flawed and so support for this initiative is no longer appropriate.

6. We also acknowledge with appreciation the address to the Nicean Society meeting in Lambeth Palace on September 9th of His Eminence, Metropolitan Hilarion of Volokolamsk, Chairman of the Moscow Patriarchate's Department for External Church Relations. We welcome his call to all churches of the Anglican Communion to step back from the abyss of heresy and reclaim the revealed truth that is at the heart of our historic understanding of Christian faith and moral order. We share with him the conviction that failure to do so will endanger our common witness and many important ecumenical dialogues but we would also point out that there are many within the Anglican Communion who have not 'bowed the knee' to secular liberalism and who are determined to stay true to the 'faith once delivered to the saints' whatever the cost.

7. The Primates Council, as bishops of the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church, wish to affirm the reality of human sin and divine judgment, the only way of salvation from sin through the death of the Lord Jesus Christ on the cross, the sufficiency and clarity of Holy Scripture as the revelation of God's will, and the transforming power of the Holy Spirit as he brings new birth and holiness of life.

8. As many people in the nations where we serve experience new economic challenges, we affirm that the Church has been entrusted with the task of holding before all people the truth of the gospel of the kingdom of God revealed in Jesus Christ, the key to human well-being and the hope of creation. While we know well the scourge of poverty and the despair it produces, we call on our churches to remember this unique calling and not be seduced by those who would argue that economic development is our only goal. The destiny of humanity is not limited to this present world but to live the resurrection life in the new heavens and new earth.

9. We are, however, determined to lead our churches away from unhealthy economic dependency and to teach our people the importance of becoming effective stewards of their own resources. We must reclaim a vision of financial self-sufficiency. We are grateful for reports of several initiatives that are building capacity for economic growth in our various provinces and commit ourselves to making this an essential dimension of our continuing work. We also believe that a vital part of our witness is the integrity of our marriages and families and our care for the most vulnerable among us, our children. We welcome recent initiatives to encourage the ministry of women in leadership by CAPA - the Council of Anglican Provinces in Africa.

10. We are also grateful for the recent conference sponsored by CAPA in Entebbe, Uganda, where we witnessed the growing strength of the Anglican Churches in Africa and their commitment to wholistic mission. We believe that GAFCON/FCA must expand its ministry through the inclusion of other Anglican provinces that share our faith conviction and love for the Communion. We also applaud the efforts of the Global South Provinces to find common ground and opportunities for common mission. We are committed to doing all that we can to strengthen our common witness.

11. We remain convinced that the unique character of GAFCON/FCA with its diversity of cultures and its embrace of the Jerusalem Declaration as a common theological confession is a vital contribution to the future of the global Anglican Communion. We are persuaded that we must offer new initiatives to more effectively respond to the crises that confront us all. We must strengthen our communication capabilities and we are also looking to build partnerships with other denominational churches that share our faith convictions.

12. Specifically, we are planning a leadership conference in the latter part of 2011 that will focus on the need to "Contend for the Faith in the Public Square." We are also beginning preparations for an international gathering of Primates, Bishops, Clergy and Lay leaders in 2012, provisionally designated "GAFCON 2". To support all of this we have approved the expansion of the Secretariat.

13. Finally, we acknowledge that it is only by God's grace that we can accomplish any of this and so we call on all those that acknowledge Jesus Christ as Lord to join us in prayer for our world and for the raising up of many initiatives that will bring the redeeming and transforming love of God to all those in need.

14. To him who is able to keep you from falling and to present you before his glorious presence without fault and with great joy - to the only God our Saviour be glory, majesty, power and authority, through Jesus Christ our Lord, before all ages, now and forevermore. Amen.

The Primates Council:

The Most Rev'd Gregory Venables, GAFCON/FCA Chair
The Most Rev'd Justice Akrofi, Archbishop, Anglican Province of West Africa
The Most Rev'd Robert Duncan, Archbishop, Anglican Church in North America
The Most Rev 'd Emmanuel Kolini, Archbishop, Anglican Church of Rwanda
The Most Rev'd Valentino Mokiwa, Archbishop, Anglican Church of Tanzania
The Most Rev'd Nicholas Okoh, Archbishop, Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion)
The Most Rev'd Henry Orombi Archbishop, Church of Uganda
The Most Rev'd Eliud Wabukala, Archbishop, Anglican Church of Kenya

The Most Rev'd Peter Jensen,
Archbishop, Diocese of Sydney, Secretary

Download statement as PDF document:

(See also: The Jerusalem Declaration)

VirtueOnline - News - News - GAFCON Statement: Primates to miss next meeting

VirtueOnline - News - News - GAFCON Statement: Primates to miss next meeting

GAFCON Statement: Primates to miss next meeting

November 24, 2010

The GAFCON/FCA Primates' Council which met in Oxford from 4th - 7th October, 2010 have released a statement from their meeting. Paragraph 5 of the Statement explains that they will not be present at the next Primates' meeting to be held in Ireland:

Paragraph 5: "For the sake of Christ and of His Gospel we can no longer maintain the illusion of normalcy and so we join with other Primates from the Global South in declaring that we will not be present at the next Primates' meeting to be held in Ireland. And while we acknowledge that the efforts to heal our brokenness through the introduction of an Anglican Covenant were well intentioned we have come to the conclusion the current text is fatally flawed and so support for this initiative is no longer appropriate."

The Primates Council:

The Most Rev'd Gregory Venables, GAFCON/FCA Chair
The Most Rev'd Justice Akrofi, Archbishop, Anglican Province of West Africa
The Most Rev'd Robert Duncan, Archbishop, Anglican Church in North America
The Most Rev 'd Emmanuel Kolini, Archbishop, Anglican Church of Rwanda
The Most Rev'd Valentino Mokiwa, Archbishop, Anglican Church of Tanzania
The Most Rev'd Nicholas Okoh, Archbishop, Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion)
The Most Rev'd Henry Orombi Archbishop, Church of Uganda
The Most Rev'd Eliud Wabukala, Archbishop, Anglican Church of Kenya

The Most Rev'd Peter Jensen, Archbishop,
Diocese of Sydney, Secretary

Iraq Veteran's College Essay on Killing Gets Charles Whittington Barred from Campus, Community College of Baltimore County - ABC News

Iraq Veteran's College Essay on Killing Gets Charles Whittington Barred from Campus, Community College of Baltimore County - ABC News

Sunday, November 21, 2010

Opera Company of Philadelphia "Hallelujah!" Random Act of Culture

Elect and Justified Sailors and Marines, attenhut! Render honours!

Christmas Food Court Flash Mob, Hallelujah Chorus - Must See!

"Attention to orders! Sovereign Commander of the nations on deck! Sailors and Marines, attenhut! Render honours!

Canterbury Cathedral Choir sings Psalm 42

If we but had a clean sweep of the entire Episcopal bench in 15-18 dioceses with good Confessional Calvinistic preachers, as of old.

N.T. Wright's Challenge to Wheaton students

Pretty dreary stuff. Yawn, Tom. Would be better to read the Scriptures themselves. Or alternatively, rather than Tom, to read Charles Hodge or Francis Turretin for twenty-thirty-minutes than this dreary stuff. No wonder the Church of England is ill-attended. Listening to this?

Archbishop says defections will cause challenges for the Church | Christian News on Christian Today

Archbishop says defections will cause challenges for the Church | Christian News on Christian Today

Anglicanism A Protestant And Reformed Confession

Anglicanism, a Protestant and Reformed Confession

In his book, Richard Hooker and the Authority of Scripture, Tradition and Reason (Paternoster, 1997), Nigel Atkinson demonstrates that Richard Hooker (1554-1600), regarded by Anglicans as one of its foremost theologians, was not someone who believed that the doctrine and teaching of the Church of England was a via media between the teachings of Roman Catholicism and the Reformed teachings of Geneva. Indeed, Atkinson demonstrates that Hooker was as convinced of the Reformed doctrines of the Reformation as his Puritan opponents. This is important in that many today, following in the footsteps of John Henry Newman and John Keble, who represented the High Church Oxford Movement in the 19th century, still mistakenly believe that Anglican doctrine is a half-way house between Rome and Geneva. Though the views espoused by the Oxford Movement and kept alive in the High Church tradition are regarded by many as normative Anglicanism, the historical truth is that these views are alien intruders into the classical Anglicanism that arose in the sixteenth century. If we want to discover the definitive characteristic of Anglicanism in terms of its doctrine and teaching, then we must go back beyond the Oxford movement of the nineteenth century to the title deeds of Anglicanism that were written by the Reformers in the sixteenth century.

For more, read:
Anglicanism A Protestant And Reformed Confession

Concluding thoughts on Cranmer - The Anglo-Reformed Movement

Concluding thoughts on Cranmer...
...(by Jack Miller)

I find that I keep coming back to Ashley Null's excellent book on Cranmer's theology. Unlike his Reformed Continental contemporaries, Cranmer left little by way of published theological writings due to the demanding and difficult responsibility and role of guiding the reformation of the English Church as its Archbishop. Null's research into the voluminous notes and annotations of Cranmer have resulted in a book that helps flesh out Cranmer's mature thoughts on justification, election, repentance, baptism, predestination, and the perseverance of the saints; and thus the direction of reform he was navigating before his arrest under Queen Mary.

For more, see:
Concluding thoughts on Cranmer... - The Anglo-Reformed Movement

Choir of St John's College, Cambridge: Remembrance Sunday 2010

The Choir of St John's College, Cambridge

Sung Eucharist at St.Johns, Cambridge.

Remembrance Sunday

"In the United Kingdom, Remembrance Sunday is held on the second Sunday in November, the Sunday nearest to 11 November (Armistice Day),[1] which is the anniversary of the end of the hostilities of the First World War at 11 a.m. in 1918, "to commemorate the contribution of British and Commonwealth military and civilian servicemen and women in the two World Wars and later conflicts"[2].

In the United Kingdom, Remembrance Sunday is marked by ceremonies at local war memorials in most cities, towns and villages, attended by civic dignitaries, ex-servicemen and -women (principally members of the Royal British Legion), members of local armed forces regular and reserve units (Royal Navy and Royal Naval Reserve, Royal Marines and Royal Marines Reserve, Army and Territorial Army, Royal Air Force and Royal Auxiliary Air Force), military cadet forces (Sea Cadet Corps, Army Cadet Force and Air Training Corps) and youth organisations (e.g. Scouts and Guides). Wreaths of poppies are laid on the memorials and two minutes' silence is held at 11 a.m. Church bells are usually rung "half-muffled", creating a sombre effect."

A brief may be found at:

Other sources:

Washington National Cathedral (Congregational Anthem)

Washington Cathedral Pipe Organ: Gigout

Financed by old Episcocratic money. Now, if they had Protestant, Reformed, and a Calvinistic pulpit ministry, like the English Reformers. But alas, with good warrant, we see low-rent, low-end, if not anti-intellectual (low class) theologies with liberals. The listeners deserve high-end and high-brow theology of the past.



Friday, November 19, 2010

Contra Mundum: Augustine on "Free-Will"

Augustine on "Free-Will"
it pleased God, the Creator and Governor of the universe, that, since the whole body of the angels had not fallen into rebellion, the part of them which had fallen should remain in perdition eternally, and that the other part, which had in the rebellion remained steadfastly loyal, should rejoice in the sure and certain knowledge of their eternal happiness; but that, on the other hand, mankind, who constituted the remainder of the intelligent creation, having perished without exception under sin, both original and actual, and the consequent punishments, should be in part restored, and should fill up the gap which the rebellion and fall of the devils had left in the company of the angels. For this is the promise to the saints, that at the resurrection they shall be equal to the angels of God. (Luke 20:36) And thus the Jerusalem which is above, which is the mother of us all, the city of God, shall not be spoiled of any of the number of her citizens, shall perhaps reign over even a more abundant population. We do not know the number either of the saints or of the devils; but we know that the children of the holy mother who was called barren on earth shall succeed to the place of the fallen angels, and shall dwell forever in that peaceful abode from which they fell. But the number of the citizens, whether as it now is or as it shall be, is present to the thoughts of the great Creator, who calls those things which are not as though they were, (Romans 4:17) ordereth all things in measure, and number, and weight.

For the full article, see:
Contra Mundum: Augustine on "Free-Will"

Porpoise Driven Life

Westminster Bookstore - The Life of Charles Hodge

Westminster Bookstore - Reformed Books - Low Prices - Flat Fee UPS Shipping - The Life of Charles Hodge (Hardcover) Hodge, A. A. 9781848710900

Publisher's Description: Charles Hodge (1797-1878) is acknowledged to be one of the most influential leaders in the history of the church in America, an perhaps the greatest American theologian of the nineteenth century. Yet paradoxically he confessed, "I have never advanced a new idea", and remarked of Princeton Seminary where he taught for more than fifty years, "I am not afraid to say that a new idea never originated in this Seminary." Hodge went on to explain that his sole object had been to state and vindicate the doctrines of the Reformed faith, not to improve on them. His great achievement, therefore, was that what might have seemed a recipe for stagnation and decline gave rise rather to a period of extraordinary vitality, vigour and advance in the American Presbyterian Church.

This Life of Charles Hodge by his son and successor, Archibald Alexander Hodge, written shortly after his father's death, brings together a wealth of material from Hodge's letters, diaries, journal articles, and personal reflections. The story is likely to appeal to more than one kind of reader. Those who know Hodge as the author of a famous Systematic Theology and several Bible commentaries, but have little knowledge of the man, will find here an absorbing account of his joys and sorrows, struggles and victories, travels and friendships, and strongly held views on a vast range of subjects; while those who, with C.H. Spurgeon, "value every morsel about the Princeton worthies", will delight in the mine of information here opened up. In addition, those with a more general interest in American and nineteenth-century history will be able to assess the reactions of a conservative but generous-minded thinker to the Civil War, the expansion of the United States, and almost every major issue of the time. For all kinds of readers, Charles Hodge will come alive in these pages.

672 Pages
Published October 2010

1549 and 1552 BCP and the Sarum Missal

Church Association Tract 113

SIR ROBERT PHILLIMORE, when Dean of the Arches, said,1 “The whole Prayer Book in fact, with very inconsiderable exceptions, consists of a translation of the Ancient Liturgies, and especially of that liturgy used by the Western Church.” Hallam said, (Const. Hist. I, 68.) “The liturgy was essentially the same with the Mass book.” The editor employed by Messrs. Griffith and Farran to write a preface to their cheap edition of the Second Prayer Book of Edward VI, says, “The first liturgy of King Edward followed closely the ancient Canon, only it was in English.”

On the other hand Prebendary Sadler tells us, “The Eucharistic service of the Church of England is substantially a new service. If we take even the Communion Office of 1549 and compare it with the Canon according to the Use of Sarum, we find that by far the greater part of it is new.” “The office of 1549 occupies twenty-three closely-printed pages at the end of Mr. Maskellʼs ʻAncient Liturgies of the Church of England,ʼ and of these not above two pages are to be found in the Sarum Missal.” (The Church and the Age, p. 305.)

Canon Estcourt has placed this beyond controversy by printing side by side in parallel columns the Liturgy of 1549 and the Canon of Sarum, with the result of showing that “every expression which implied a real and proper sacrifice had been weeded out. The canon is so mutilated that only here and there do the words in the two books agree.” (Dogmatic Teaching of the Book of Common Prayer on the Eucharist, pp. 16, 40.)

Such variations are of comparatively small importance in the Ante-Communion, though the
Confession to “the Blessed Mary, all Saints, and you;” and the “praying holy Mary, all the Saints of God, and you” of Sarum (like the “Holy Mary, Mother of God, intercede for us” of the Hereford Missal) were struck out of this part of the Reformed Anglican rite. It is interesting to note that the absolution given to the Priest by the choir was, in 1549, put into the mouth of the Protestant Minister, while the distinctively sacerdotal absolution of the Sarum Use was omitted altogether.

For the full article: see:

Thursday, November 18, 2010

1552 Book of Common Prayer-Three Proximate Causes

Three Causes of the 1552 Book of Common Prayer, England’s Worship Manual by the Rev. Donald Philip Veitch

The English Reformation of the 16th century was an epochal event in Western Civilization with as many causes as there were effects. Although beyond the present scope, this reformation of the 1300-year old Church of England had deep antecedents in the 15th century with serious consequences for 16th-17th century England and America. By dint of demand—the width of this subject—the focus is narrowed to the 1552 Book of Common Prayer edited by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer and associates. This Book of Common Prayer, by decree of King and Parliament, became the “worship book” imposed on approximately eight-nine thousand English parishes. This 1552 BCP in its slightly edited 1662 version—very slight—would be used throughout worldwide Anglicanism until the 1960’s. Travel anywhere during this 400-year period, attend an Anglican service, and it would be the same, whether in London, Nigeria or Sydney, Australia. This BCP, a comprehensive and government-ordered “book of prayers” for the national church, shaped English doctrine, worship and piety until the mid-twentieth century. Amongst a plethora of causes for this book, attention is directed to three proximate causes that shaped the 1552 Book of Common Prayer. Those three proximate causes of the 1552 Book of Common Prayer were: 1000 years of history preceding 1552 BCP, the Continental Reformation, and Cranmer’s desire to educate England in the best of the past with a view to future generations.

The first cause in our three-fold thread of causes for the 1552 Book of Common Prayer was one thousand years of a history predating this worship manual. “Prayer Books,” called Missals during this period, were centuries-old and were used throughout Western nations in churches, schools, convents and monasteries. This is difficult to appreciate, to wit, 1000 years of preceding history; many American Churchmen think the Church began on their own home turf, with their own religious experience or with the American colonies, but European and English history is recalibrative. Englishmen had been in the Roman fold of Western Christendom since the Synod of Whitby, 662 C.E., the period of transition from Celtic to Roman Christianity. For centuries, English families were accustomed to liturgical worship that was ordered, directed, read and written services—again, as the “work of worship.” (Liturgy means "work," the work of worship--hearing, focussing, concentrating, learning and responding, not therapy and entertainment.) Unified liturgical patterns dominated English hamlets, villages and cities with variations, e.g. the York, Sarum, and Salisbury Missals. But essentially, a national, unified, ordered, written, historic and governing worship pattern prevailed. By contrast, for better or worse, American Protestants—with their love of revivalism, spontaneity, independence, individualism and their 19th-20th century creed, “No Creed but Christ”— have difficulty appreciating ordered, disciplined and written liturgies. Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Anabaptists,, Pentecostaliststs and other enthusiasts have opposed written liturgies as a matter of principle. “Too repressive,” “too restrictive,” “spiritually dead,” “too controlling,” “too traditional,” and “too heavy” are the remonstrations from many American quarters. “Who can pray a written prayer?” is often heard. For Archbishop Cranmer and conservative Reformers in England, however, 1000 years of liturgical worship was the cause to retain rather than to dispose of liturgy, order, and direction. If there was to be revision of the old Prayer Book, it would be conservative, not radical. As an editor, Cranmer would not “throw the baby out with the wash.” It was inconceivable that non-liturgical worship would be left to the discretion of individual clerics or church members. As an historian and theologian, Cranmer would not “reinvent the wheel.” Individualism and “worship freedom” was not—quite simply—within Cranmer’s worldview. Hence, the English Reformer retained and revised a “book” of worship, the 1552 BCP, in the consciousness of 1000 years preceding it—requiring a “liturgical” pattern. This is why the Church of England has always claimed to be a church of history and ancient traditions—with its “reformed” Prayer Book.

The second cause in the three-fold strand of causes for the reformed 1552 Book of Common Prayer was the Continental Reformation that had begun in Germany and Switzerland from 1517 to 1552. If Cranmer retained and revised the book of worship with its 1000-year pedigree and with his consciousness of that pedigree, Cranmer nonetheless would edit the Prayer Book with Reformation insights. It is a fair to say that Luther’s Reformation in Germany became, over time, England’s. It is also fair to say that the Swiss Reformers, e.g. Zwingli, Vermigli, Bucer, Coverdale, Calvin, and others preceded and influenced the English Reformation. By turns, the Continental Reformation influenced Cranmer’s theology and, by more turns in a complex process, would shape the revised and reformed 1552 Book of Common Prayer.

In expanding on this second cause—the Continental Reformation—there were at least two lasting results for the revised 1552 BCP: vernacular worship and a Lutheran-Calvinistic product. Briefly touching on these two effects will emphasize this second cause—the larger Reformation as a cause for revision.

The first effect—for emphasis on the second cause above—was an English Prayer Book, English Bible, and English worship. The vernacular Bible was the order of the day. The transition is also hard for Americans to understand—the switch from Latin to English worship. For centuries, Latin services were conducted. Martin Luther had translated the Latin Bible into German in 1519—for use in the churches. Luther began conducting worship in German. William Tyndale and Miles Coverdale, two contemporaries of Cranmer, had translated the Bible into English. Zwingli of Switzerland was using the German Bible as well as German liturgies. The printing presses were rolling. Initially, England was behind the power curve in terms of the Continental Reformation thanks to Henry VIII, but eventually caught up. The Reformation result? Cranmer’s 1552 Book of Common Prayer, an English Prayer Book, an English Bible, and English worship—England and the West was never the same.

A second effect—illustrative of the second cause of the 1552 Book of Common Prayer—was a Lutheran-Calvinistic theology blended with the gems of 1000 years before it. Lutheran literature was getting reviews at Oxford, but most notably at Cambridge. One thinks of the famous “White Horse Inn” at Cambridge where scholars gathered to discuss Luther’s tracts and books—usually over a few pints of ale. Although Cranmer was a Cambridge don during the 1520’s, he was a late-comer to Lutheran and Calvinist perspectives. Early in his career, he was anti-Lutheran. By 1552, however, with much water under the bridge, he had passed from a Lutheran phase to a Calvinistic one. Calvin’s books were also being read at Cambridge. Cranmer—ever judicious and ever cautious as the scholarly marginalia indicates in his books—moved slowly. After Henry VIII died 1547 and his Protestant son ascended to the throne, Edward VI, the mature Cranmer—Lutheran at points, but decisively Calvinistic by 1550—brought Reformation insights to the reformed Prayer Book. The old prayer book was pruned of sacerdotalism, priest-craft, invocation of saints, patron saints, pilgrimages, relics-worship (sources of large revenues, e.g. Walsingham Shrine), worship of Mary, Roman supremacy in doctrine, purgatory, Masses, transubstantiation, and works-based salvation, to mention a few leading matters. Acknowledging these Reformation influences, some have said correctly that the 1552 Book of Common Prayer was a via media, a mid-way point between Wittenberg (Luther) and Geneva (Calvin). In this reviewer’s view, the BCP was a Calvinistic chick laid by a Lutheran egg. The 1552 BCP was a Protestant and Reformed effect, “caused” by the Continental Reformation.

Having illustrated two effects arising from the second cause—the Reformation as a cause for 1552 Book of Common Prayer—and in returning to the three-fold string of causes, the third cause for the 1552 Book of Common Prayer was Cranmer’s desire to educate England—all eight-nine thousand churches—in the best of the past with a view to the education of future generations. As noted, Cranmer was conscious of the 1000-year history of the Church of England. He was a Cambridge don who studied the church fathers and knew the classics. He conserved the best prayers, hymns and lections from the earlier Gallican and Roman liturgies. He retained such historic gems as the Te Deum Laudamus, Benedicite Omnia Opera (retaining the Latin hymn titles, yet with these two hymns in English), and numerous prayers of the classics, e.g. St. Chrysostom’s General Thanksgiving. As an educated Churchman—as all the Reformers were, he knew the Bible and history well enough to see the divergences between the theology and worship patterns of the early church (100 C.E.-500 C.E.) and those of the late medieval church (1000 C.E.-1550 C.E.) Without tossing the best, Cranmer brought doctrine and worship back to the earliest centuries of the church. But, as noted, he did this with an English Prayer Book and Engish Bible readings. While the rank and file Churchman was illiterate, they understood English. In fact, this is the reason for the word “Common” in the title, The Book of “Common” Prayer. Cranmer fully believed that congregations—in time—could learn, “read” the prayers (“reading” does not mean “not praying”), hear, think, and worship “in common.” Rightly, Cranmer believed that England’s literacy would rise with congregational involvement—and it did. As a nation’s Chief Pastor and educator, Cranmer’s 1552 Book of Common Prayer was a nationwide program to educate England in the best of the past with a view to future generations.

This transformative event called the English Reformation had antecedents in the 15th century with enormous consequences for 16th-17th century England. Given the scope of the subject, the focus was narrowed to The 1552 Book of Common Prayer. By decree of King and Parliament, this “worship book” was imposed on a nation, shaping its doctrine, worship and piety until the mid-twentieth century. Amongst many causes, three were cited: 1000 years of previous history, the Reformation on the continent (two effects were cited to illustrate this point), and Cranmer’s desire to educate England in the best of the past while pastorally shepherding future generations. Just as there were many causes for this classic Book of Common Prayer, of which three were named—there were many other consequences, one of which was democracy. But that story--democracy--is for another day.

John MacArthur on Mariolatry – Part 1 « Churchmouse Campanologist

It seems as if there might be a sizable number of Christians who are unaware of the text of Jeremiah, particularly Jeremiah 44, which discusses a goddess called ...the Queen of Heaven.

John MacArthur uses Jeremiah 44 as his text to introduce two sermons on Mary in Catholic Church dogma. These date from 2006.

The links to the full text are at the bottom of the post. I’ll provide excerpts, indented below, which will give many of us food for thought. Emphases mine throughout.

For more from CC, see:
John MacArthur on Mariolatry – Part 1 « Churchmouse Campanologist

This will never sell to the Orthodox. Nor will it appeal to the Anglo-Catholic parasites in Anglicanism, e.g. Jack Iker, Keith Ackerman, inter alia.

Wednesday, November 17, 2010

Halls of Montezuma: Marine anthem with lyrics

Posted lest this scribe should forget his heritage.

Boultbee (12-51): Reformed Theology of the Church of England: Thirty-nine Articles

An Introduction to the theology of the Church of England, in an exposition of the Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England by Thomas Pownall Boultbee (London: Longmans, Green & Co., n.d.)

In general, this book, thus far, is unremarkable, except at points. We are not sure of his intended audience, a factor that governs the content. A college level class? A graduate or doctoral level? In general, it is orthodox, classical and close to the Articles of Religion. As a stand-alone text, it is unsuitable for a graduate level theological student. As such, however, it surely stands as a stern rebuke to Anglican liberalism.

For our comments on Boultbee (i-xix): Thirty-nine Article, see:

For our comments on Boultbee (xxi-pg.12): Thirty-nine Articles
What we offer below are isolated comments and quotes on Boultbee, 12-51.

Pg.12ff, gives a standard and orthodox treatment of the Trinity, suitable for beginners and as a handbook for—perhaps—a first or second-year college student. Of interest, historically, is pg.14.

The Trinitarian controversy in the Church of England belonged chiefly to the commencement of the eighteenth century. In 1685 the celebrated work of Bishop Bull appeared, the Defensio Fidei Niceni. It is a learned investigation of the opinions of the fathers of the first three centuries on the doctrine of the Trinity. It remains the standard work on that part of the subject. Bishop Bull died in 1709, and the controversy took another form, mainly in consequence of the publications of Dr. Samuel Clarke, which were considered to be a revival of Arian opinions. This led to the valuable treatises of Waterland on the Trinity; they appeared in succession for some years, and remain as a copious storehouse of theology on the various points of the doctrine of the Holy Trinity.

Pg. 16, Boultbee will continuously invoked John Pearson’s classic on the Creeds. Pearson on the Creed is recognizably a classic of scholarship, albeit so little known.

For reasons already stated, we shall again recur to 'Pearson on the Creed.'

Pg. 22ff. Fairly standard material re: Christ, His Person, natures, incarnation and death. Not worth citing anything.

Pg. 26, do we have an odious Arminian before us? We believe we do. Boultbee needs to back up and do more work on theology proper and the divine attributes. We will soon see with Article 17.

But if all this is undeniable, it is manifest that great caution is needed in stating the doctrine of the atonement. It is in theology, as a science, as it is in other sciences. In astronomy the results of multitudinous observations give certain facts, which must be all accounted for and included in any theory of the science which claims acceptance. In theblogy each passage of Scripture is a fact; and the undoubtedly ascertained qualities of man's nature are other facts. Any doctrinal theory, in order to be true, must unite in itself, and take account of, all these facts. If itf ails to unite them (within those limits which are possible to man), it is not a true doctrine. If the results of our induction, carefully conducted, lead to two apparently conflicting doctrines, it does not follow of necessity that either is false. For example, the free-will of man, to such an extent at least as to make him responsible, is an unquestionable fact of Scripture and experience. The foreknowledge of God, and His universal sovereignty, are necessary deductions of reason and clear assertions of Scripture. Perfectly to reconcile these with man's free-will may be impossible. This need not distress us when we have carefully followed our facts to the verge of the infinite or the unknown. There we must leave them, and we need have little difficulty in feeling assured that the missing facts which would reconcile the apparent contradictions in our deductions lie within, and probably not many steps within, the dark margin it which we pause.

Pg. 37, some helpful notes on the alteration of the Creed and double procession, as well as corruption in the Eastern and Western branches. Food for thought.

The history of this doctrine may be briefly recapitulated. The original form of the Nicene, or rather the Constantinopolitan, Creed declared that the Holy Ghost proceeded from the Father. At the close of the sixth century the words and from the Son were added by the Provincial Council of Toledo, in Spain. Thence the clause appears to have gradually found its way into Gaul, in portions of which kindred Gothic races were settled. Nearly two hundred years afterwards, this dogma of the procession of the Holy Ghost from the Son, as well as from the Father, found a strenuous supporter in Charlemagne. He called a council of his own bishops at Frankfort, in which this doctrine was affirmed, and the Pope was afterwards addressed on the subject of the defect of the Creed on this important matter. The Pope declined to make any change in the Creed. Nor, so far as can be clearly ascertained, was the alteration ever made officially and authoritatively. Gradually and stealthily the change spread. About the year 1014 it had established itself in Rome, and was adopted in the Pontifical services.

The opposition called forth in the Eastern Church is well known. The presumption of the Western portion of the Church in venturing to alter the Creed confirmed by all the great General Councils, added to the assumptions of the Pope, made the great schism between the East and the West which has never been closed. It has, perhaps, been a divine mercy that, in the midst of so general a corruption of Christian doctrine, the Papal tyranny should have thus received a check ; and that a perpetual protest should have been made against it by a Church scarcely purer than itself in point of doctrine.

Nothing could well be more unsatisfactory than the mode in which this additional, clause found its way into the Creed. Nevertheless we see that it is distinctly affirmed by the Church of England; and the fact of its truth, or otherwise, is quite distinct from any particular time or mode of its promulgation.

Pg. 47ff. Unremarkable comments, except for an interesting and classical view of Scriptures.


Passages bearing on this Article may be arranged in the following manner:—

1. Texts which imply or assert the Inspiration of Scripture,
such as these :

'All Scripture is given by inspiration of God' (2 Tim. iii. 16).
' Which He promised afore by His prophets in the Holy Scriptures' (Rom. i. 2).
' The oracles of God' (Rom. iii. 2).
' One jot or one tittle shall in nowise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled' (Matt. v. 18).
' The Scripture cannot be broken ' (John x. 35).
' In the words which the Holy Ghost teacheth ' (1 Cor. ii. 13).
' The Spirit of the Lord spake by me, and His word was in my tongue' (2 Sam. xxiii. 2).
' Behold, I have put my words in thy mouth' (Jer. i. 9).
' Which the Holy Ghost by the mouth of David spake before' (Acts i. 16).
' If any man shall add, .... and if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out ofthe book of life,' &c. (Rev. xxii. 18,19).
' No prophecy of the Scripture is of any private interpretation : for the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man : but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost' (2 Pet. i. 20, 21).

2. Texts appealing to the Scripture as authoritative; for

' What things soever the law saith ' (Rom. iii. 19).
' What saith the Scripture ? ' (Rom. iv. 3).
' The Scripture saith' (Rom. ix. 17).
' The Scripture foreseeing' (Gal. iii. 8).
` That the Scripture might be fulfilled ' (John xix. 28, 36).
` As the Scripture hath said ' (John vii. 38).
' This Scripture must needs have been fulfilled which the Holy Ghost by the mouth of David spake before ' (Acts i. 16) ' Wherefore as the Holy Ghost saith' (Heb. iii. 7). ' David himself said by the Holy Ghost' (Mark xii. 36).

3. Forms perpetually recurring, such as these :
`Thus saith the Lord;' ' The Lord hath spoken; ' ' The voice of the Lord;' ' The word of the Lord by the mouth of;' &c.

4. Duties which we owe to the Scripture. Search the Scriptures (John v. 39). Meditation therein (Ps. cxix. 15). Love (Ps. cxix. 97). Obedience (Rom. xvi. 26). They must be taught (Deut vi. 7). They must be used against our spiritual enemies ( 17).
5. Effects of Scripture on the Believer. It makes wise unto salvation (2 Tim. iii. 15). It perfects, thoroughly furnishing unto all good works (2 Tim. iii. 17).
It converts the soul (1 Pet. i. 23).
It causes growth in grace (1 Pet. ii. 2).
It sanctifies (John xvii. 17).

Cranmer Quotes: Bible, Faith, Justification, Christ, Lord's Supper, Pope

Article reprinted from Cross†Way Issue Summer 1989 No. 33 (C)opyright Church Society; material may be used for non-profit purposes provided that the source is acknowledged and the text is not altered.

On this quincentenary of Cranmer’s birth it is good to be reminded of how relevant are many of the things which Cranmer said and wrote to the present times. Here are some extracts from his works and two pieces of poetry which his death inspired.

The Sufficiency of Holy Scripture

Whatsoever the church teacheth you out of the Canonical books of the Bible, believe that; but if
they teach you anything beside (I mean, which is not agreeable with the same) believe neither that nor them...cleave ye fast to the sound and certain doctrine of God’s infallible word, written in the Canonical books of the New and Old Testament. (Comfutation of Unwritten Verities)
Lively Faith
As he that readeth Cesar’s Commentaries, believing the same to be true, hath thereby a knowledge of Cesar’s life and notable acts, because he believeth the history of Cesar, yet it is not properly said that he believeth in Cesar, of whom he looketh for no help nor benefit; even so he that believeth that all that is spoken of God in the Bible is true, and yet liveth so ungodly that he cannot look to enjoy the promises and benefits of God, although it may be said that such a man hath faith and belief in the words of God, yet it is not properly said that he believeth in God, or hath such faith and trust in God whereby he may surely look for grace, mercy and everlasting life at God’s hand. (Homily of The True, Lively and Christian Faith)
Scripture – The Food of the Soul

Let us reverently hear and read Holy Scripture, which is the Food of the soul. Let us diligently
search for the well of life in the books of the New and Old Testament, and not run to the stinking puddles of men’s traditions, devised by men’s imaginations, for our justification and salvation. (Homily on Scripture).

The Lord’s Supper

The true eating and drinking of the said body and blood of Christ is, with a constant and lively faith to believe, that Christ gave his body, and shed his blood upon the cross for us, and that he doth so join and incorporate himself to us, that he is our head, and we his members, and flesh of his flesh, and bone of his bones, having him dwelling in us, and we in him. And herein standeth the whole effect and strength of this sacrament. And this faith God worketh inwardly in our hearts by his holy Spirit, and confirmeth the same outwardly to our ears by hearing of his word, and to our other senses by eating and drinking of the sacramental bread and wine in his holy supper. For figuratively he is in the bread and wine, and spiritually he is in them that worthily eat and drink the bread and wine; but really, carnally, and corporally, he is only in heaven, from whence he shall come to judge the quick and dead.

Christ’s Sacrifice

Christ never gave this honour to any creature, that he should make a sacrifice of him, nor did not ordain the sacrament of his holy supper, to the intent that either the priest or the people should sacrifice Christ again, or that the priests should make a sacrifice of him for the people: but his holy supper was ordained for this purpose, that every man, eating and drinking thereof, should remember that Christ died for him, and so should exercise his faith, and comfort himself by the remembrance of Christ’s benefits, and so give unto Christ most hearty thanks, and give himself also clearly unto him.

Worthy Reception of the Sacraments

As in baptism those that come feignedly, and those that come unfeignedly, both be washed with the sacramental water, but both be not washed with the Holy Ghost, and clothed with Christ: so in the Lord’s supper both eat and drink the sacramental bread and wine, but both eat not Christ himself, and be fed with his flesh and blood, but those only which worthily receive the sacrament. (The True and Catholick Doctrine of the Lord’s Supper)


Justification is not the office of man, but of God: for man cannot justify himself by his own good works, neither in part, nor in whole ... So the true understanding of this doctrine, we be justified freely by faith without works, or that we be justified by faith in Christ only, is not, that this our own act to believe in Christ, or this our own faith in Christ, which is within us, doth justify us ... but the true understanding and meaning thereof is, that although we hear God’s word and believe it; although we have faith, hope, charity ... we must renounce the merit of all our said virtues....and good deeds which we either have done, shall do, or can do ... and therefore we must trust only in God’s mercy, and in that sacrifice which our High Priest and Saviour Christ Jesus, the Son of God, once offered for us upon the cross... (Homily of Salvation)

The Mass

But what availeth it to take away beads, pardons, pilgrimages, and such other like popery, so long as the two chief roots remain unpulled up? whereof, so long as they remain, will spring up again all former impediments of the Lord’s harvest, and corruption of his flock. The rest is but branches and leaves, the cutting away whereof is but like topping and lopping of a tree, or cutting down of weeds, leaving the body standing and the roots in the ground; but the very body of the tree, or rather the roots of the weeds, is the popish doctrine of transubstantiation, of the real presence of Christ’s body and blood in the sacrament of the altar (as they call it), and of the sacrifice and oblation of Christ made by the priest, for the salvation of the quick and the dead. Which roots if they be suffered to grow in the Lord’s vineyard, they will overspread all the ground again with the old errors and superstitions. (The True and Catholick Doctrine of the Lord’s Supper)

The Pope

Alas! what hath the pope to do in England? whose jurisdiction is so far different from the
jurisdiction of this realm, that it is impossible to be true to the one and true to the other...I will never give my consent to the receiving of him into this Church of England. (Examination before Brokes)

The Martyrdom

‘Make short! make short!’ and so they lit the wood.
Then Cranmer lifted his left hand to heaven,
And thrust his right into the bitter flame;
And crying, in his deep voice, more than once,
‘This hand offended - this unworthy hand!’
So held it till it all was burn’d, before
The flame had reach’d his body; I stood near –
Mark’d him - he never uttered moan of pain:
He never stirr’d or writhed, but, like a statue,
Unmoving in the greatness of the flame,
Gave up the ghost; and so past martyr-like.

Sonnet on Cranmer

Outstretching flame-ward his upbraided hand
(O God of mercy, may no earthly seat
Of judgement such presumptuous doom repeat!)
Amid the shuddering throng doth Cranmer stand;
Firm as the stake to which with iron band
His frame is tied; firm from the naked feet
To the bare head, the victory complete;
The shrouded body, to the soul’s command,
Answering with more than Indian fortitude,
Through all her nerves with finer sense endued,
Till death departs in blissful aspiration:
Then ‘mid the ghastly ruin of the fire,
Behold the unalterable heart entire,
Emblem of faith untouched, miraculous attestation!