How Did we Get here? The Roots of Pentecostalism: Gnostics
- The God of the Old Testament was NOT the God of the New Testament.
- The God of the New Testament was another “GOOD” God as opposed to, and creator of, the “BAD” God of the Old Testament.
- He resolutely cut out all texts that were contrary to his dogma; in fact, he created his own New Testament admitting but one gospel, a mutilation of St. Luke, and an Apostolicon containing ten epistles of
. St. Paul
- The good God is all love, the inferior god gives way to fierce anger.
- Christ (not the same a Jesus) did not have a real fleshly body
- Christ was God Manifest not God Incarnate.
- Christ brought salvation to Cain, Core, Dathan and Abiron, Esau, and the Gentiles, but left in damnation all Old Testament saints.
- Ideas of Marcion's reappeared with Manichaean developments among the Bulgarian Bogomils of the 10th century and their Cathar heirs of southern France in the 13th century.
Manichaeanism led to Albigenses (al”bi-jen’sëz), which flourished in southern
The beliefs of Montanism contrasted with orthodox Christianity in the following ways:
- The belief that the prophecies of the Montanists superseded and fulfilled the doctrines proclaimed by the Apostles.
- The encouragement of ecstatic prophesying and speaking in tongues, contrasting with the more sober and disciplined approach to theology dominant in orthodox Christianity at the time and since.
- The view that Christians who fell from grace could not be redeemed, also in contrast to the orthodox Christian view that contrition could lead to a sinner's restoration to the church.
- The prophets of Montanism did not speak as messengers of God: "Thus saith the Lord," but rather described themselves as possessed by God, and spoke in his person. "I am the Father, the Word, and the Paraclete," said Montanus. This possession by a spirit, which spoke while the prophet was incapable of resisting, is described by the spirit of Montanus: "Behold the man is like a lyre, and I dart like the plectrum. The man sleeps, and I am awake".
- A stronger emphasis on the avoidance of sin, church discipline, and apocalyptic living than in orthodox Christianity. They emphasized chastity, including forbidding remarriage.
- The teachings of Montanism also stated that the Father was the Son. (oneness)
- According to Philastrius (Hær., xlix) they baptized the dead. Sozomen (xviii) tells us that they observed Easter on 6 April or on the following Sunday. Germanus of Constantinople (P.G., XCVIII, 44) says they taught eight heavens and eight degrees of damnation.
In 388 a group known as the Tertullianistae appear in the literary record. They came from
Montanism also lead to Novatian, the Donatists (Donatism), the Cathari, and even Emanuel Swedenborg and Edward Irving.
Then we come to Edward Irving a Scottish Presbyterian that held to the future anti-christ ideas of the Counter Reformation. In his study he read Manuel de Lacunza’s book and translated it into English. Many began to accept these teachings of future prophecies and began prophesying them selves. Two families, the McDonalds and the Campbells were drawn to this through their own practice of psychic readings, fortune telling and auto-writings. This lead to prophetic utterances of Margaret McDonald, a Scottish girl that influenced
First, no one was responsible for his will and his own actions, because his whole character is formed independently of himself; people are products of their environment, hence his support for education and labour reform, rendering him a pioneer in human capital investment.
The following is a letter from Edward Irving, note the reference to the Campbells and the McDonalds;
"My dear and kind friend, - I have at last found the document I referred to. You will find it in the printed Acts of the year 1704, Act xxviii., and from the 6th of certain 'Overtures concerning Schools and Bursaries, and for instructing youth in the principles of religion;' and is as follows*:-"
(A footnote here indicates the following: "* It is unnecessary to quote the extract made by Irving, which bears reference to Chalmers's idea of making theology one of the branches of liberal education.")
"There are very many Acts of the Church scattered through these years following the Restoration concerning the advancement of learning, which would, I think, strengthen your hands very much in any undertaking to that effect.
"I had thought to see you to thank you in person for your great kindness to me and my church on this occasion; but the state of my poor boy's health prevents me from leaving home for a night. Accept of them now, and be assured of my willingness to repay unto Christ and His Church the kindness which by you He hath shown unto me; and whenever any opportunity occurs of serving you personally, be assured of my readiness.
"I perceive two things in
Darby is the acknowledged father of modem dispensational premillennialism. Darby is remembered especially for his recalling the church to expectancy for its rapture at the return of the Lord before Daniel's Seventieth Week. The doctrine of a secret rapture was first conceived by John Nelson Darby of the Plymouth Brethren in 1830. Darby invented the doctrine claiming there were not one, but two "second comings." This teaching was viewed as unbiblical by other members of the Brethren. Samuel Tregelles, a biblical scholar, said that Darby’s two comings teachings was the "height of speculative nonsense." Another member of the Plymouth Brethren, B.W. Newton, disputed Darby's new doctrine claiming such a conclusion was only possible if one declared certain passages to be "renounced as not properly ours." (This is eventually what Darby DID). "This is precisely what Darby was prepared to do. Too traditional to admit that biblical authors might have contradicted each other, and too rationalist to admit that the prophetic maze defied penetration, Darby attempted a resolution of his exegetical dilemma by distinguishing between Scripture intended for the Church and Scripture intended for
Though Dowie himself did not accept the Spirit-baptism with tongues theology, he is called "the father of healing revivalism in
He viewed druggists and physicians as instruments of the devil. When his own daughter was severely burned after accidentally knocking over an alcohol lamp, he banished one of his followers for trying to alleviate her pain with Vaseline. He refused to allow her any medical treatment and she died in that condition. Many others who came to his faith cure homes died of their illnesses without any medical attention. In 1895 he was charged with manslaughter and neglect by the city of
In spite of Dowie's heretical doctrines and unscriptural ministry, he prepared the way for Charles Parham and his equally unscriptural Pentecostalism. Many of the most famous Pentecostal evangelists went out from
- Dositheus Claims to be the Messiah
- Simon Magnus a false prophet and magician, becomes a disciple of Dositheus
- Cerdon (Cerdo) a disciple of Simon Magnus.
- Marcion learns from Cerdo and denied the God of the Old Testament stating it was only for the Jews.
- Montanus, claimed spiritual understanding including ecstatic utterances, which was used in the pagan worship. Also taught oneness. Jesus was another God.
- Cathari (the union of Marcion and Montanus)
- Mormonism, in order to prove its position has claimed theological partnership with Marcion and Montanus.
- Montanus and Marcion influenced Manichaeanism
- Manichaeanism led to what is called Albigensesism, which flourished in southern France in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
- This was the beginning of the Camisards, A sect of French fanatics who terrorized Dauphiné, Vivarais, and chiefly the Cévennes in the beginning of the eighteenth century.
- This led to Quakers and Shakers. (ecstatic utterances continue)
- The Reformation view of the papacy as the anti-christ causes the instigation of the Jesuits
- Manuel Lacunza, a Jesuit, began what is known as Millenarianism, a belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society after which all things will be changed in a positive direction.
- Lacunza is recognized by the Adventist movement as a prophet.
- Adventist movement led to Jehovah Witnesses and 7th day Adventist.
- Edward Irving was greatly influenced by (the Jesuit defense of the papacy, (Lacunza), Montanus, Marcion, and Manichaeanism (combines all these thoughts into a new revelation) Relies on ecstatic utterances and prophecies to form his theology.
- Darby influenced by Edward Irving’s millenarianism forms modern dispensational teachings.
- C. I. Scofield is influenced by Darbyism.
- Darby travels to
and converts N.C. Richard Sparling, Southern Baptist preacher. America
- Out of Sparling's revival came the Thomplison Brothers, founders of the Southern Church of God whose college is now on the old Bob Jones campus,
. Lee College
- John Alexander Dowie (influenced by
) moves to Irving and begins the America and promotes divine healing. Christian Catholic Apostolic Church
- Charles Parham influenced by Dowie marries a Quaker (ecstatic utterances practiced by her)
- The “fire” had began in
and Parham was caught up in it from within his family and from without. America
- Parham goes to
to evangelize and meets W.J. Seymore. Texas
- Parham was charged with sodomy with two young males in San Antonio, Texas.
- Parham starts the Bethel Bible College in Kansas.
- Parham and and his students AGREE on the new theology and to pursue the “experience”, per his wife’s account. and on January 1, 1901 after teaching on the the baptism of the Holy Spirit, a woman by the name of Angus Ausman was praying and around midnight she said that she had received the first century gift of the baptism of the Holy Spirit and had spoken in tongues.
- Parham informs his friend, W.J. Seymore in
. of the “experience” Huston, TX
- W.J. Seymore attends Parham’s teachings in school but must set in the hall way because he is a black man
- W.J. Seymore is invited to Pastor in
at the Los Angeles . Nazarene Church
rejects the “experience” and stops W.J. Seymore from continuing. Nazarene Church
- People in the church that heard W.J. Seymore ask him to continue teaching.
- W.J. Seymore rents an old stable on
Azusa St.and teaches for a few years.
- Parham visited
there, he denounced the revival as a "darky camp meeting," saying, "God is sick at His stomach!" and "what good can come from a self-appointed Negro prophet?”. Seymour
- Parham joins the Ku Klux Klan
- G.B. Cashwell visits
- G.B. Cashwell meets A.J. Tomlinson (a Quaker) in
- A.J. Tomlinson receives the “experience”
, Churchof God Charlston TN
- Death of A.J. Tomlinson caused a split and have now formed 24 denominations
- Charles Harrison Mason founds the Church of God in Christ in 1897 due to being expelled from the Missionary Baptist Church for teaching holiness.
- Charles Harrison Mason visits Azusa St. and has the “experience”
- Church of God in Christ changes its name to Church of God and is now teaching the “experience” (mostly Black Church)
- The White pentecosatls separate from the Black due to racial tensions and forms the Assemblies of God in 1914
- Forerunners to the Assemblies of God forming, Apostolic Faith Movement, Church of God (not Mason) Holiness Baptist Churches of Southwestern Arkansas, United Pentecostal (Jesus only)
- By this time the “experience” has spread across the country and the family of Demos Shakarian is involved in
- Demos Shakarian is a wealthy business man who meets Oral Roberts.
- Demos Shakarian sets Oral Roberts up with other business men to market the “experience”
- Demos Shakarian founder of the Full Gospel Businessmen Association.
- FGBA finances the movement.