Reformed Churchmen

We are Protestant, Calvinistic and Reformed Prayer Book Churchmen and Churchwomen. In 2012, we remembered the 350th anniversary of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer; in 2012, we also remembered the 450th anniversary of Mr. (Bp., Salisbury) John Jewel's sober, scholarly, Protestant, and Reformed defense An Apology of the Church of England. In 2013, we remember the publication of the "Heidelberg Catechism" and the influence of Reformed theologians in England, including Heinrich Bullinger's Decades. Our book for October 2014 is Francis Turretin's 3-volume "Institutes of Elenctic Theology" at: Our book for November 2014 is Calvin's magnum opus, the "Institutes of Christian Religion" at: Our book for December 2014 is Alan Jacob's "Book of Common Prayer" at:

Wednesday, December 17, 2014

Reform Statement: Re: Libby Lane, 1st CoE Female Bishop

Reform Media Release Rev Libby Lane

17 December 2014 A.D. Libby Lane the 1st Female Bishop in Church of England

17 December 2014 A.D.  Libby Lane the 1st Female Bishop in Church of England

No author. “Libby Lane named as Church of England’s first female bishop.”  Episcopal News Service.   17 Dec 2014.  Accessed 17 Dec 2014.

Libby Lane named as Church of England’s first female bishop


Libby Lane, a suffragan bishop in the Diocese of Chester, smiles as her forthcoming appointment as the new bishop of Stockport is announced in the Town Hall in Stockport, northern England, Dec. 17, 2014. Lane will become the Church of England’s first female bishop. Photo: REUTERS/Phil Noble


[Church of England press release] Downing street has announced that the new bishop of Stockport – and the first female bishop in the Church of England – will be the Rev. Libby Lane, currently vicar of St Peter’s, Hale, and St Elizabeth’s, Ashley.

As bishop of Stockport she will serve as a suffragan (assistant) bishop in the Diocese of Chester. She will be consecrated as the eighth bishop of Stockport at a ceremony at York Minister on Jan. 26, 2015.


Lane was ordained as a priest in 1994 and has served a number of parish and chaplaincy roles in the north of England in the dioceses of Blackburn, York and Chester. For the past eight years she has served as vicar of St. Peter’s and St. Elizabeth’s.


She is one of eight clergy women from the Church of England elected as Participant Observers in the House of Bishops, as the representative from the dioceses of the north west.


Speaking at Stockport Town Hall, where she was announced as the new bishop of Stockport, Lane said: “I am grateful for, though somewhat daunted by, the confidence placed in me by the Diocese of Chester. This is unexpected and very exciting. On this historic day as the Church of England announces the first woman nominated to be bishop, I am very conscious of all those who have gone before me, women and men, who for decades have looked forward to this moment. But most of all I am thankful to God.


“The church faces wonderful opportunities, to proclaim afresh, in this generation, the good news of Jesus and to build His kingdom. The Church of England is called to serve all the people of this country, and being present in every community, we communicate our faith best when our lives build up the lives of others, especially the most vulnerable. I am excited by the possibilities and challenges ahead.”


Responding to news of the announcement, Archbishop of York John Sentamu, said: “It is with great joy that on January 26, 2015 – the feast of Timothy and Titus, companions of Paul – I will be in York Minster, presiding over the consecration of the Rev. Libby Lane as bishop suffragan of Stockport. Libby brings a wealth of experience in parish ministry, in hospital and FE chaplaincy, in vocations work and the nurture of ordinands. I am delighted that she will exercise her episcopal ministry with joy, prayerfulness, and trust in God.


Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby said: “I am absolutely delighted that Libby has been appointed to succeed Bishop Robert Atwell as bishop of Stockport. Her Christ-centered life, calmness and clear determination to serve the church and the community make her a wonderful choice.


“She will be bishop in a diocese that has been outstanding in its development of people, and she will make a major contribution. She and her family will be in my prayers during the initial excitement, and the pressures of moving.”


Bishop of Chester Peter Forster said: “Libby has had a varied and distinguished ministry, and is currently a first-rate parish priest. She has already demonstrated her ability to contribute nationally through her representative role in the House of Bishops, on behalf of the northwest England dioceses.


“As the first woman bishop in the Church of England she will face many challenges as well as enjoying many opportunities to be an ambassador for Jesus Christ. I have no doubt that she has the gifts and determination to be an outstanding bishop.


“I am delighted at her designation as bishop of Stockport after a lengthy process of discernment across the Church of England and beyond.”


The nomination of Lane as the new bishop of Stockport was approved by the Queen and announced Dec. 17. Lane succeeds the Rt. Rev. Robert Atwell, who is now the bishop of Exeter.


Biographical Details

Libby Lane has been the vicar of St Peter’s Hale and St Elizabeth’s Ashley, in the Diocese of Chester, since April 2007, and from January 2010 has also been Dean of Women in Ministry for the diocese. After school in Manchester and university at Oxford, she trained for ministry at Cranmer Hall in Durham. She was ordained a deacon in 1993 and a priest in 1994, serving her curacy in Blackburn, Lancashire.


Prior to moving to Hale, Lane was team vicar in the Stockport South West Team, and assistant diocesan director of ordinands in the Diocese of Chester, advising and supporting those considering a vocation to ministry in the church. She continues to be a bishop’s selection adviser.


Lane has served in the Diocese of York, as chaplain in hospital and further education, and as family life officer for the Committee for Social Responsibility in the Diocese of Chester.


She is one of eight clergy women from the Church of England elected as Participant Observers in the House of Bishops, as the representative from the dioceses of the north west.


Her husband, George, is also a priest; they were one of the first married couples in the Church of England to be ordained together. George is coordinating chaplain at Manchester Airport, licensed in the Diocese of Manchester. They have two grown up children in higher education.


Her interests include being a school governor, encouraging social action initiatives, learning to play the saxophone, supporting Manchester United, reading and doing cryptic crosswords.


Resources available:


A video statement by the Rev. Libby Lane on her appointment is available from the Diocese of Chester Website here (Chester Diocese YouTube channel is available here).


An audio interview with the Rev. Libby Lane on today’s announcement is available as part of a Church of England podcast here.


A photostream from today’s announcement including photos of the Rev. Libby Lane are available here.

17 December 2014 A.D. Frank Zappa: Quotations on Islam from Notable Non-Muslims

17 December 2014 A.D.  Frank Zappa: Quotations on Islam from Notable Non-Muslims

Besides Frank Zappa’s remarks, there are 88 additional quotes from other leaders regarding Jihadi-Reprobates, see:

Frank Zappa

Frank Vincent Zappa (1940 – 1993) was a critically acclaimed musician, songwriter, composer, recording engineer, record producer, and film director. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. 


Let’s say we have to make some ‘show of force.’ The most common scenarios involve small guerilla or terrorist groups. Nuclear retaliation? It has been suggested by others that Aerosol Pork Grenades would be a better deterrent — Islamic martyrs are denied entrance to heaven if they show up at the gate smelling like a pig. Denial of The Big Payoff removes a certain cachet from acts of voluntary self-destruction.[54]


AND NOW, for illustrative quotes on Islam from the son and grandson of Kenyan born Muslims, a world class and credentialed historian, and a man notable for his robust and unimpeachable honesty and integrity, Imam Barack Hussein Obama, see: 

20 Quotes By Barack Obama About Islam and Mohammed

#1 “The future must not belong to those who slander the Prophet of Islam”

#2 “The sweetest sound I know is the Muslim call to prayer”

#3 “We will convey our deep appreciation for the Islamic faith, which has done so much over the centuries to shape the world — including in my own country.”

#4 “As a student of history, I also know civilization’s debt to Islam.”

#5 “Islam has a proud tradition of tolerance.

#6 “Islam has always been part of America”

#7 “we will encourage more Americans to study in Muslim communities

#8 “These rituals remind us of the principles that we hold in common, and Islam’s role in advancing justice, progress, tolerance, and the dignity of all human beings.”

#9 “America and Islam are not exclusive and need not be in competition. Instead, they overlap, and share common principles of justice and progress, tolerance and the dignity of all human beings.”

#10 “I made clear that America is not – and never will be – at war with Islam.”

#11 “Islam is not part of the problem in combating violent extremism – it is an important part of promoting peace.”

#12 “So I have known Islam on three continents before coming to the region where it was first revealed”

#13 “In ancient times and in our times, Muslim communities have been at the forefront of innovation and education.”

#14 “Throughout history, Islam has demonstrated through words and deeds the possibilities of religious tolerance and racial equality.”

#15 “Ramadan is a celebration of a faith known for great diversity and racial equality

#16 “The Holy Koran tells us, ‘O mankind! We have created you male and a female; and we have made you into nations and tribes so that you may know one another.’”

#17 “I look forward to hosting an Iftar dinner celebrating Ramadan here at the White House later this week, and wish you a blessed month.”

#18 “We’ve seen those results in generations of Muslim immigrants – farmers and factory workers, helping to lay the railroads and build our cities, the Muslim innovators who helped build some of our highest skyscrapers and who helped unlock the secrets of our universe.”

#19 “That experience guides my conviction that partnership between America and Islam must be based on what Islam is, not what it isn’t. And I consider it part of my responsibility as president of the United States to fight against negative stereotypes of Islam wherever they appear.”

#20 “I also know that Islam has always been a part of America’s story.”

AND NOW, for more scholarly quotes from Imam Obama, see the URL.


OR, beside Imam Obama’s insights above, a few Quranic verses that have insired many Islamo-fascists.


Qur'an 3:32—Say: Obey Allah and the Apostle; but if they turn back, then surely Allah does not love the unbelievers.


Qur'an 48:29—Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and those who are with him are severe against disbelievers, and merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and falling down prostrate (in prayer), seeking Bounty from Allah and (His) Good Pleasure. The mark of them (i.e. of their Faith) is on their faces (foreheads) from the traces of (their) prostration (during prayers). This is their description in the Taurat (Torah). But their description in the Injeel (Gospel) is like a (sown) seed which sends forth its shoot, then makes it strong, it then becomes thick, and it stands straight on its stem, delighting the sowers that He may enrage the disbelievers with them. Allah has promised those among them who believe (i.e. all those who follow Islamic Monotheism, the religion of Prophet Muhammad SAW till the Day of Resurrection) and do righteous good deeds, forgiveness and a mighty reward (i.e. Paradise).

Qur'an 4:24—Also (forbidden are) women already married, except those (captives and slaves) whom your right hands possess. Thus hath Allah ordained (Prohibitions) against you: Except for these, all others are lawful, provided ye seek (them in marriage) with gifts from your property—desiring chastity, not lust, seeing that ye derive benefit from them, give them their dowers (at least) as prescribed; but if, after a dower is prescribed, agree mutually (to vary it), there is no blame on you, and Allah is All-knowing, All-wise.

Qur'an 5:33—The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His apostle and strive to make mischief in the land is only this, that they should be murdered or crucified or their hands and their feet should be cut off on opposite sides or they should be imprisoned; this shall be as a disgrace for them in this world, and in the hereafter they shall have a grievous chastisement.

Qur'an 9:5—Then, when the sacred months have passed, slay the idolaters wherever ye find them, and take them (captive), and besiege them, and prepare for them each ambush. But if they repent and establish worship and pay the poor-due, then leave their way free. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

Qur'an 9:29—Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day [notice it says "fight those who do not believe," not "fight people who are attacking you"], nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the Religion of Truth, from among the People of the Book [the people of the book are Jews and Christians], until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.

Qur'an 9:73—O Prophet! strive hard against the unbelievers and the hypocrites and be unyielding to them; and their abode is hell, and evil is the destination.

Qur'an 9:111—Surely Allah has bought of the believers their persons and their property for this, that they shall have the garden; they fight in Allah's way, so they slay and are slain; a promise which is binding on Him in the Taurat and the Injeel and the Quran; and who is more faithful to his covenant than Allah? Rejoice therefore in the pledge which you have made; and that is the mighty achievement.

Qur'an 47:35—Be not weary and fainthearted, crying for peace, when ye should be uppermost: for Allah is with you, and will never put you in loss for your (good) deeds. 

Qur'an 2:106—Whatever communications We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, We bring one better than it or like it. Do you not know that Allah has power over all things?

From the 1662 Book of Common Prayer, the Collect for Good Friday:

O MERCIFUL God, who hast made all men, and hatest nothing that thou hast made, nor wouldest the death of a sinner, but rather that he should be converted and live; Have mercy upon all Jews, Turks, Infidels, and Hereticks, and take from them all ignorance, hardness of heart, and contempt of thy Word; and so fetch them home, blessed Lord, to thy flock, that they may be saved among the remnant of the true Israelites, and be made one fold under one shepherd, Jesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, one God, world without end. Amen. 

17 December 1942 A.D. USS GROUPER (SS-214) Sinks Japanese Army Troop Ship BANDOENG MARU Near Solomon Islands; Survives Counterattack by Sub Chaser (CH-29)

17 December 1942 A.D.  USS GROUPER (SS-214) Sinks Japanese Army Troop Ship BANDOENG MARU Near Solomon Islands;  Survives Counterattack by Sub Chaser (CH-29)

1812 - The brig Argus, commanded by Arthur Sinclair, captures the American schooner Vancise during the War of 1812. She had been abandoned by her crew and found derelict by another ship. A crew is placed on board and she is sent into the Chesapeake.

1846 - During the Mexican-American War, the squadron under Commodore Matthew C. Perry captures Laguna de los Terminos without opposition. The squadron includes the side-wheeled steamer Mississippi, wooden steamer Vixen, schooner Bonito, and the shallow-draft vessel Petrel.

1863 - The bark-rigged clipper ship Roebuck seizes blockade-runner British schooner Ringdove off Indian River, Fla. with cargo including salt, coffee, tea, and whiskey.

1917 - USS Remlik (SP 157) reportedly encounters an enemy submarine during a storm in the Bay of Biscay, but the weather prevents an engagement. While she is fighting the heavy seas that day, a depth charge breaks loose on her after deck and is secured by Chief Boatswain's Mate John MacKenzie, who receives the Medal of Honor for his heroic actions.

1917 - While underway off Point Loma, Calif., USS F 1 collides with her sister submarine, USS F 3. With her hull torn open amidships, she rapidly sinks and loses 19 crewmen.

1942 - USS Grouper (SS 214) sinks the Japanese army passenger cargo ship Bandoeng Maru about 15 miles northwest of Cape Henpan, Buka Island, Solomons and survives the counterattack by submarine chaser Ch 29.

17 December 1941 A.D. Commander at Pearl Harbor Canned: RADM Kimmel Scapegoated

17 December 1941 A.D. Commander at Pearl Harbor Canned:  RADM Kimmel Scapegoated

Editors. “Commander at Pearl Harbor canned.”  N.d.  Accessed 16 Dec 2014. 

On this day, Rear Admiral Husband E. Kimmel was relieved of his command of the U.S. Pacific Fleet as part of a shake-up of officers in the wake of the Pearl Harbor disaster.

Admiral Kimmel had enjoyed a successful military career, beginning in 1915 as an aide to the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. He served admirably on battleships in World War I, winning command of several in the interwar period. At the outbreak of World War II, Kimmel had already attained the rank of rear admiral and was commanding the cruiser forces at Pearl Harbor. In January 1941, he was promoted to commander of the Pacific Fleet, replacing James Richardson, who FDR relieved of duty after Richardson objected to basing the fleet at Pearl Harbor.

If Kimmel had a weakness, it was that he was a creature of habit, of routine. He knew only what had been done before, and lacked imagination—and therefore insight—regarding the unprecedented. So, even as word was out that Japan was likely to make a first strike against the United States as the negotiations in Washington floundered, Kimmel took no extraordinary actions at Pearl Harbor. In fact, he believed that a sneak attack was more likely at Wake Island or Midway Island, and requested from Lieutenant General Walter Short, Commander of the Army at Pearl Harbor, extra antiaircraft artillery for support there (none could be spared).

Kimmel's predictability was extremely easy to read by Japanese military observers and made his fleet highly vulnerable. As a result, Kimmel was held accountable, to a certain degree, for the absolute devastation wrought on December 7. Although he had no more reason than anyone else to believe Pearl Harbor was a possible Japanese target, a scapegoat had to be found to appease public outrage. He avoided a probable court-martial when he requested early retirement. When Admiral Kimmel's Story, an "as told to" autobiography, was published in 1955, Kimmel made it plain that he believed FDR sacrificed him—and his career—to take suspicion off himself; Kimmel believed Roosevelt knew Pearl Harbor was going to be bombed, although no evidence has ever been adduced to support his allegation.

17 December 1777 A.D. France Formally Recognizes the United States

17 December 1777 A.D.  France Formally Recognizes the United States

Editors. “France formerly recognizes the United States.” N.d.  Accessed 16 Dec 2014.

On this day in 1777, the French foreign minister, Charles Gravier, count of Vergennes, officially acknowledges the United States as an independent nation. News of the Continental Army's overwhelming victory against the British General John Burgoyne at Saratoga gave Benjamin Franklin new leverage in his efforts to rally French support for the American rebels. Although the victory occurred in October, news did not reach France until December 4th.

Franklin had quickly mustered French support upon his arrival in December 1776. France's humiliating loss of North America to the British in the Seven Years' War made the French eager to see an American victory. However, the French king was reluctant to back the rebels openly. Instead, in May 1776, Louis XVI sent unofficial aid to the Continental forces and the playwright Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais helped Franklin organize private assistance for the American cause.

Franklin, who often wore a fur cap, captured the imagination of Parisians as an American man of nature and his well-known social charms stirred French passions for all things American. He was the toast of Parisian society, enchanting salons with his wide-ranging knowledge, social graces and witty repartee. Nevertheless, he was not allowed to appear at court.

It took the impressive and long-awaited victory at Saratoga to convince Louis that the American rebels had some hope of defeating the British empire. His enthusiasm for the victory paired with the foreign minister's concern that the loss of Philadelphia to the British would lead Congress to surrender, gave Franklin two influential allies with two powerful--if opposing--reasons for officially backing the American cause. A formal treaty of alliance followed on February 6, 1778.

17 December 1559 A.D. Was the “Nosey” Parker Properly Consecrated? As the 71st Archbishop of Canterbury?

17 December 1559 A.D.  Was the “Nosey” Parker Properly Consecrated?  As the 71st Archbishop of Canterbury?

Graves, Dan. “Was `Nosey’ Parker Properly Consecrated?”  May 2007.  Accessed 21 Jun 2014.

Was "Nosey" Parker Properly Consecrated? Matthew Parker was consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury on this day, December 17, 1559 at Lambeth, England. But was it a true consecration? To those who hold the theory of apostolic succession, the legitimacy of the Church of England may depend on the legitimacy of Matthew Parker, for he was the first Church of English archbishop after Mary Tudor's Catholic reign.

During the reign of Mary Tudor, Matthew Parker prudently stayed out of sight. Mary had deprived him of the deanery of Lincoln. And little wonder. Parker was one of them--a reformer who had fallen for Luther's teachings while at Cambridge. He had even served as chaplain to Anne Boleyn, the woman who displaced Mary's mother as queen.

But times that change can change about again. Mary died and Elizabeth restored the Protestant church. She summoned Parker to become Archbishop of Canterbury. With reluctance, he agreed. He knew himself to be more of a scholar than a church leader. He was consecrated by four Anglican bishops who survived from the time of Edward VI.

Parker resisted change. He did not believe in democratic reforms. "God keep us from such a visitation as Knox has attempted in Scotland--the people to be orderers of things," he prayed. The Puritans, who wanted to move further from the Church of Rome, found his conservatism distasteful. Parker's relations with dissenters were not happy.

He spent much of his time at books, revising the Thirty Nine Articles (the essential statement of Church of England beliefs), and issuing the Bishop's Bible with its beautiful New Testament preface: "These be the mysteries of our faith, these be the grounds of our salvation, these be thus written that we should believe them, and by our belief enjoy life everlasting. Once and in times past God diversly and many ways spoke unto the fathers by the prophets, but in these last days he has spoken unto his own son, whom he has made heir of all things, whose dignity is such that he is the brightness of the father's glory, the very image of his substance, ruling all things by the word of his power." Determined to discover the roots of the English church apart from Rome, Parker combed through old manuscripts and published the results of his findings. His asked so many questions in his research that he was given the nickname "Nosey Parker."

Parker died in 1575. Thirty years later, a controversy erupted over his consecration. In 1604 the Nagg's Head Legend caused consternation at court. A book claimed that Parker's consecration had been flawed, not least because one of the bishops who placed hands on him had allegedly not been consecrated. Partisans of the Roman Church were quick to press these claims. A disturbed James I called his privy counsel. Research eventually settled the matter in favor of Parker and the Church of England. All four of the bishops had been properly consecrated although one had lost his papers. Parker's own record of his consecration was unearthed and showed a proper ritual.

That was not the end of Parker's story, however. He seemed destined to be even more controversial in death than in life. During the Roundhead rebellion against King Charles I, his body was dug up and thrown on a dung heap by Puritans who detested his memory.


1.      Burnet, Gilbert. Abridgment of the History of the Reformation of the Church of England. Richard Chiswell, 1683.

2.      Hook, Walter Farquhar, 1798-1875. Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury. London, R. Bentley, 1865-1884.

3.      Kennedy, W. M. Parker. Makers of National History series. London: Pitman, 1908, source of the portrait.

4.      McKilliam, Annie E. A Chronicle of the Archbishops of Canterbury. London: J. Clarke, 1913.

5.      "Parker, Matthew." Dictionary of National Biography. Edited by Leslie Stephen and Sidney Lee. London: Oxford University Press, 1921 - 1996.

6.      Perry, Edith Weir. Under Four Tudors, Being the Story of Matthew Parker, Sometime Archbishop of Canterbury. London: Allen & Unwin, 1964.

7.      Shirley, John. Elizabeth's First Archbishop; a reply to Mr. J. C. Whitebrook's Consecration of the Most Reverend Matthew Parker. London, S.P.C.K., 1948.

8.      Whitebrook, John Cudworth. The Consecration of the Most Reverend Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury... London and Oxford, A. R. Mowbray & co. limited; New York, Morehouse-Gerham co., 1945.

Last updated May, 2007.

17 December 1187 A.D. Mr. Gregory VIII (Alberto Di Morra) Dies—Rome’s 173rd; 2 Months in Office; Christianity Obliterated in Palestine by “Religion of Peace” (John Kerry’s View)/Europe Thunderstruck; Saladin’s Victory at Sea of Galilee/Fall of Jerusalem; Papal Legate to Investigate Murder of Thomas a Becket; Crowned Alfonso King of Portugal; Overture for Reconciliation with Emperor Frederick Barbarossa

17 December 1187 A.D.  Mr. Gregory VIII (Alberto Di Morra) Dies—Rome’s 173rd;  2 Months in Office;  Christianity Obliterated in Palestine by “Religion of Peace” (John Kerry’s View)/Europe Thunderstruck;  Saladin’s Victory at Sea of Galilee/Fall of Jerusalem; Papal Legate to Investigate Murder of Thomas a Becket; Crowned Alfonso King of Portugal;  Overture for Reconciliation with Emperor Frederick Barbarossa

Loughlin, James. "Pope Gregory VIII." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909.  Accessed 10 Sept 2014.

Mr. Gregory VIII


Born about the beginning of the twelfth century, at Benevento; elected at Ferrara, 21 Oct., 1187; died at Pisa, 17 Dec., 1187, after a pontificate of one month and twenty-seven days. The year 1187 witnessed the almost complete obliteration of Christianity in Palestine. On 4 July, Saladin won the decisive victory of Hittin, near Lake Tiberias; on 3 October, the terrible sultan was master of Jerusalem. The news of the fall of the Holy City struck Europe like a thunderbolt. Urban III is said to have died of a broken heart (20 Oct.). The following day thecardinals elected the chancellor, Cardinal Alberto. He was a Beneventan of noble family; had received a goodeducation; at an early age became a monk, some say a Cistercian, some a Benedictine of Monte Cassino. He was created cardinal-deacon in 1155, by Adrian IV, and in 1158 cardinal-priest with the title of San Lorenzo in Lucina.Alexander III, in 1172, made him his chancellor. It is interesting to notice that he was the last cardinal who used that title until it was revived in our own day by Pius X, succeeding chancellors of the Holy See, for some reasonnot satisfactorily explained, calling themselves vice-chancellors. Cardinal Alberto was one of the two legates dispatched to England by Alexander III to investigate the murder of St. Thomas a Becket. He also, in the pope's name, placed the royal crown on Alfonso II of Portugal. He was universally beloved for the mildness and gentleness of his disposition; and was no sooner seated on the pontifical throne than he confirmed the popular estimate of his character by making overtures to Barbarossa for a reconciliation with the Church. Since the dominate policy of his pontificate must be a crusade for the recovery of the Holy Sepulchre, he issued circular letters to all the faithful, enjoining prayers and fasts; and as peace between the rival seaports of Pisa and Genoawas an essential condition to the transportation of troops and supplies, he repaired to the former city, where he was overtaken by death. He was buried in the cathedral of Pisa with all possible honours, and was succeeded byClement III.


Liber Pontificatis, ed. DUCHESNE, II, 451; WATTERICH, Vitoe Pont. Rom., II, 683-92; Bibl. de l'Ecole des Chartes (1881), XLII, 166; NADIG, Gregors VIII 57 tugiges Pontifikat (Basle, 1890).